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ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

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ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

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  1. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Prepared by Jamil Istifan M-DCC, Kendall Campus ESL & Foreign Languages Department

  2. What is Clause? It’s a part of a sentence which contains a subject and a verb, usually joined to the rest of the sentence by a conjunction. e.g. • Suzy said that she was happy. The word clause is also sometimes used for grammatical structures containing participles or infinitives (no subject or conjunction). e.g. • Not knowing where to go, I called Robert; I told him to try a different path. FORMULA: Phrase < Clause < Sentence

  3. Main Clause Some sentences consist of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause acts like a port of the main clause (like a subject, an object, or an adverbial). e.g. • Who you are doesn’t matter. S • I told him that I didn’t care. d.o. • Where you go, you’ll find Coca-cola. adv.

  4. Co-ordinate Clause It’s one, two, or more clauses of equal “value” that make up a sentence. It doesn’t function as a subject, object, complement or adverbial. e.g. • It’s hot today and there’s a lot of sun. Subordinate Clause It’s a clause which functions as part of another clause (as subject, object, or adverbial) e.g. • What I need is a sandwich. (subject) • I thought that he crashed. (object) • I’ll dream of you wherever you are. (adverbial)

  5. Relative Clauses Clauses, beginning with relative pronouns who, which, where…, used to identify people or things, are called relative clauses. e.g. • There’s a program on T.V. which you might like. Relative when and where introduce clauses referring to time and place. Why is used after reason. e.g. • I’ll never forget the day when I first met you. • Do you know a shop where I find shoes? • Do you know the reason why she doesn’t like me? Object pronouns can be left out. e.g. • She’s somebody I can’t stand. (..somebody that…)

  6. Relative pronouns have a double use. As subjects or objects, they can replace words like he or him. • She’s got a boy-friend. He studies English. • She’s got a boy-friend who studies English. Whose is a possessive relative word. It replaces his, her or its. e.g. • I saw a girl whose hair is blond. (Not…whose her hair…) Which can refer to a noun or to a clause. What, that and how cannot be used in the same way. e.g. • He got married, which surprised me. (Not…, what/that surprised…)

  7. Identifying Adjective Clauses Identifying, defining or restrictive clauses tell us which person or thing is meant. e.g. • This is the car that I rented. Non-Identifying Adjective Clauses Non-identifying, non-defining or non-restrictive clauses tell more about a person or thing that is already identified. e.g. • In 1908 Ford developed his Model T car, which sold for $500. When a non-identifying clause doesn’t come at the end of a sentence, 2 commas are necessary. e.g. • Claudia, who lives in New-York, has moved.

  8. that and who That can refer to things, and in an informal style to people. e.g. • Where is the girl that sells the tickets? • Where is the girl who sells the tickets? who and whom In an informal style, who can be used as an object. Whom is more formal. e.g. • The woman who I marry has a sense of humor. • The woman whom I marry has a sense of humor. Omission of a subject In informal style, after there is. e.g. • There’s a man at the door wants to talk to you.

  9. Position of preposition Before relative pronouns it is more formal. At the end of relative clauses it is more informal. e.g. • He was respected by the people with whom he worked. (formal) • He was respected by the people (that) he worked with. (informal) Who and that are not used after prepositions. e.g. • …..the people with whom he worked. • (not…the people with who/that he worked.) That : essential to the meaning Which: not essential to the meaning.