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The Most Common Insect Rice Pests in Indonesia and Their Possible Control by Arya Widyawan Plant Protection D PowerPoint Presentation
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The Most Common Insect Rice Pests in Indonesia and Their Possible Control by Arya Widyawan Plant Protection D

The Most Common Insect Rice Pests in Indonesia and Their Possible Control by Arya Widyawan Plant Protection D

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The Most Common Insect Rice Pests in Indonesia and Their Possible Control by Arya Widyawan Plant Protection D

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    2. Important of rice Almost all of the 200 millions of the population use it as a primary food Million people engage in rice production, rice processing and other post-harvest activities related to rice (Sidik, 2004)

    3. Two major factors are responsible for low yields of rice Adverse weather (floods, drought, typhoons, etc.) Pest attack (Pathak and Khan, 1994)

    4. Insect Pest that commonly attack rice in Indonesia (Supriatna, 2003).

    5. Rice brow planthopper; Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    6. Life cycle The eggs are whitish or transparent. The female insert their eggs into the midribs of the leaves. Eggs are laid in batches with their anterior ends attached to one another. Nymph are white, 0.6 mm in length when newly hatch, later become brown and grow up to 30 mm. The adults are usually found in the lower part of the plants, while the nymphs pierce the leave sheaths (Wyniger ,1962).

    7. Control 1- Cultural control Resistant variety; such as IR 64 Recommended distance planting; 22 cm x 22 cm 2- Biocontrol agent

    8. 3- Chemical control Soaking the seedlings in insecticide solution for 6-12 h before transplanting gives protection for 20 d

    9. Gall midge; Orseolia oryzae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    10. Gall midge ; Orseolia oryzae

    11. Gall midge Orseolia oryzae)

    12. Life cycle Fertilized females start egg-lying within a few hours of emergence. Their eggs lying capacity varies from 100-300 eggs. Incubation depends on the relative humidity, 82-88% being the most favorable (CFOPR ,1976).

    13. Life cycle Larvae, soon after hatching, move down between the leaf sheaths until they reach the growing point of the apical or side buds. Once at the apical shoots, they feed at the base of the growing point. Due to their presence, a gall forms and panicle do not develop in infected tillers. (CFOPR, 1976).

    14. control 1- Cultural control plant a variety such as Asahan or Ciliwung which is resistant to this pest (Syam et al., 2007). removal of the alternative host, weeds such as Cynodon dactylon, Pseudhomonylia fluitans and Panicum fluitans or wild rice species such as Oryza barthii, during the dry season may assist in cutting down the population (CPFOR ,1976). Adult stage may be controlled by using a light trap (Syam et al., 2007)

    15. control 2- Biological control agents

    16. control 3- Chemical control pay attention in the early age of rice when rice is in the vegetative phase. Insecticide is used if the damage is reach the economic threshold level. Five percent silver shoot or ten percent of tillers has boring the immature larvae is a economic trehold level that warrants initiation of control measure (Hidaka and Widiarta, 1984, Kumar et al., 2008). systemic pesticide that contain carbofuran as active ingredient may be used to control the midge (Syam et al., 2007).

    17. Stem borers Tryporyza incertulas , Tryporyza inotata , Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae)

    18. Stem borer Tryporyza incertulas , Tryporyza inotata , Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae)

    19. Stem borer Tryporyza incertulas , Tryporyza inotata , Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae)

    20. Life cycle Yellow stem borer

    21. Life cycle White stem borer

    22. Life cycle Strip stem borer

    23. Control 1- Cultural control It is advised that not plant on the December January since at that time the temperature, moisture, and rain intensity is suitable for the development of borer(Syam et al., 2007). cutting the rice as close to ground level as possible during harvesting the majority of larvae may be removed from the field, At this time, they are 10-17 cm above ground level. Stubble should be ploughed in or flooded soon after harvesting to destroy any larvae or pupae which remain (CFOPR, 1976). widespread practice of clipping the seedlings before transplanting greatly reduces the carryover of eggs from the seedbed to the transplanted fields (Pathak and Khan ,1994). Nitrogenous fertilizer should be given appropriately not over the recommended value.

    24. control 2- Biocontrol agents

    25. control 3- Chemical control Insecticide may be used if there are more than 10% of plant show deadheart or whitehead symptom (Syam et al., 2007).

    26. Rice bug; Leptocorisa oratorius (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    27. Rice bug; Leptocorisa oratorius (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    28. Life cycle Eggs are laid in rows, high on the leaves. A single female lays an average of 200-300 eggs in batches of 10-20 (Pathak and Khan, 1994). There are five nymphal instars and distinct color changes follow each of the four moults. A newly hatched nymph is green but becomes brownish as it grows. The nymphal period usually last for 17-26 days. The bugs are most abundant at 27-28 C and 80-82% RH (Pathak and Khan, 1994).

    29. Control 1- Cultural control Hand picking or catching the adults or nymph before flowering stage is suggested. Traditional method use a natural trap which is a meat or chicken that has been decayed (Syam et al., 2007).

    30. Control 2- Biological control

    31. Control 3- Chemical control Insecticide is sprayed in the morning or afternoon when the pest is on the canopy of the plant. (Syam et al., 2007).

    32. Leaf folder ; Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae)

    33. Leaf folder ; Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae)

    34. Life cycle The eggs are laid singly or in pairs on along the midrib on either surface of the young leaf (Hill, 1975). They are flat, oval in shape, yellow in color. The freshly hatched larva is 1.5-2 mm long and 0.2-0.3 mm wide, has a shiny translucent body and a light-brown head. The body turns Green after the larva begins feeding. There are five larval instar (Pathak & Khan, 1994). The pupa is slender, greenish-brown colored. The life cycle is generally 23-35 days (CFOPR ,1976).

    35. Control 1- Cultural control Clean the farm from the alternative host (Graminae) In a small areas of rice clipping of infested leaves and destroying them may control the pest (CFOPR, 1976). Light trapping of adults has been successful in some instances (Hill, 1975).

    36. Control 2-Biocontrol agent s Diptera; Megaselia spp. and Argyrophylax spp. Hymenoptera; Goniozus spp., Trichogramma spp., Apanteles spp., and Bracon spp. Coleoptera; Chlaenius spp. and Coccinella spp. Orthoptera Anaxipha spp. and Metioche spp.

    37. Control 3- Chemical control Pesticide that contains active ingredient fipronil and carbofuran may be used to control this pest (Syam et al., 2007).

    38. Comprehensive control program

    39. Comprehensive control program

    40. Comprehensive control program

    41. References Center For Overseas Pest Research. 1976.Pest control in rice. Hobbs the printer limited, London. Hill. D.S, 1975. Agricultural insect pest on the tropics and their control. Cambridge university press, London. Kumar L.V., A. K. Chakravarthy, K. N. Muniswamy Gowda and N. E. Thyagaraj. 2008. Economic threshold level of Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) (Diptera : Cecidomyiidae) in Coastal Karnataka. Current Biotica 2: 146-153. Marheni. 2004. Kemampuan beberapa predator pada pengendalian wereng batang coklat (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.). Jurnal Natur Indonesia 6: 84-86. Pathak, M.D. and Z.R. Khan. 1994. Insect Pests of Rice. IRRI, Manila. Sidik, M. 2004. Indonesian rice policy in view of trade liberalization. FAO Rice Conference, 12-13 February 2004 Rome, Italy. Supriatna, A. 2003. Integrated pest management and its implementation by rice farmer in Java. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 22:109-115. Suzuki, Y., Y. Kobori, and Y. Sato. 2006. Sustainable management of migratory rice plat hopper by conservational biology control combined with endophyte infected plant. National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba.

    42. References Syam, M. Suparyono, Hermanto, D. Wuryandari. 2007. Masalah lapangan hama, penyakit, hara pada padi. 3rd ed. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan, Jakarta. Wyniger. R. 1962. Pest of crops in warm climates and their control. Basel printed, Switzerland.