TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE F. SENA DEMİRKIR BAHAR ESİM
Outline 1) Definition 2) Origins - Differences between TPM and TQM - The First Appliers of TPM 3)Eight Pillars of TPM 3.1) 5S 3.2) Autonomous Maintennance 3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen 3.4) Planned Maintenance 3.5) Quality Maintenance 3.6) Training 3.7) Office TPM 3.8) Safety, Health and Environment
Outline 4) TPM Implementation 4.1) Announce top management’s decision to introduce TPM 4.2) Introductory education campaign 4.3) TPM Promotion 4.4) Establish basic TPM policies and goals 4.5) Preparation and Formulation of a master plan 4.6) TPM kick-off 4.7) Develop an equipment management program 4.8) Develop a planned maintenance program 4.9) Develop a autonomous maintenance program 4.10) Increase skills of production and maintenance personnel 4.11) Develop early equipment management program 4.12) Perfect TPM implementation and raise TPM levels 5) Benefits of TPM
Outline 6) Case Study 7)Conclusion
1) Definition • A company-wide team-based effort to build quality into equipment and to improve overall equipment effectivenessTotalall employees are involvedit aims to eliminate all accidents, defects and breakdownsProductiveactions are performed while production goes ontroubles for production are minimizedMaintenancekeep in good conditionrepair, clean, lubricate
1) Definition (continued) • Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) can be considered as the medical science of machines. • It is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. • The main goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.
1)Definition (continued) TPM’s other goals are : • Having a clean, tidy and safe work place • Keeping machines and tools in good condition • Having a say in what goes on in your cell/area • Getting things done • Making life easier - being in control • Working in a ‘smart’ way • Owning and having a pride in your machines/cell/area • Teamwork - production and maintenance • About making machines as ‘effective’ as possible
1) Definition (continued) • TPM is a culture that focuses on improving the effectiveness of the plant, equipment and processes through the empowerment of people.
2) Origins • TPM is an original Japanese administrative approach. • TPM arises from Preventive Maintenance (PM) and the shortcomings of TQM in the maintenance aspects.The need to go further than preventive maintenance was quickly recognized by those companies who were committed to TQM. • TPM was originated with the systematic improvement of these principles by the president of Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) Seichi Nakajima in 1971. • As a result TPM originated in order to cover the shortcomings of TQM in the maintenance area.
2) Origins (continued) The First Appliers of TPM • First true TPM initiative developed by Nippon Denso of the Toyota Group in the early 1970’s in Japan. • Nippon Denso of the Toyota Group became the first company to win the TPM certification. • First true TPM initiative in the United States developed by Kodak Co. in 1987.
TPM is input based it is equipment focused TPM is related to employees participation and hardware oriented TPM aims to eliminate losses and wastes totally (Zero-Defect approach) TQM is output based it is quality focused TQM is related to systematizing the management and software oriented TQM aims to reach incredible quality levels, defects can occur parts per million (Parts per Million Approach) Differences between TPM and TQM
3.1) Five-S (5S) • TPM starts with 5S. • Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. • Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. • Making problems visible is the first step of improvement. Japanese TermEnglish Translation Seiri Sort Seiton Systematise Seiso Sweep Seiketsu Standardise Shitsuke Self - Discipline
3.2)Autonomous maintenance Autonomous maintenance is the collection of activities in which operators make an important portion of the maintenance of their machines independently from the maintenance department. In other words, train the operators to close the gap between them and the maintenance staff, making it easier for both to work as one team and change the equipment so the operator can identify any abnormal conditions and measure deterioration before it affects the process or leads to a failure.
3.2)Autonomous maintenance (continued) 7 steps are implemented to progressively increase operators knowledge, participation and responsibility for their equipment 1. Perform initial cleaning and inspection 2. Countermeasures for the causes and effects of dirt and dust 3. Establish cleaning and lubrication standards 4. Conduct general inspection training 5. Carry out equipment inspection checks 6. Workplace management and control 7. Continuous improvement
3.2)Autonomous Maintenance (continued) JISHU HOZEN Before Autonomous Maintenance
3.2) Autonomous Maintenance (continued) JISHU HOZEN After Autonomous Maintenance
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen • Kobetsu-Kaizen is a Japanese term • Basically Kaizen means improvement and “Kobetsu-Kaizen” means focused improvements • In some sources Kobetsu-Kaizen refers to “equipment and process improvement” when talking about eight pillars of TPM
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen (continued) • During a TPM application we need to perform lots of Kobetsu-Kaizen studies. • For this purpose Kobetsu-Kaizen committees are structured in the workplaces. • The establishment of Kaizen Project standards and the consolidation of the results of these standards are the duty of the Kobetsu-Kaizen committees. • Also Kobetsu-Kaizen committees are the most effective groups who will prevent 16 major losses.
Loss Types 1. Sporadic Loss: Appears immediately Can be inspected and solved easily Occurs rarely Chronic Loss: Can not be easily identified and solved Caused by hidden defects in machines or equipments The frequency of loss is more Sophisticated measures and analyses are required for solution 3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen (continued)
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen (continued) 16 Major Losses in an Organization • 8 big losses that impede equipment efficiency • 5 big losses that impede human work efficiency • 3 big losses that impede effective use of production resources
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen (continued) 8 big losses that impede equipment efficiency • Failure losses - Breakdown loss • Setup / adjustment losses • Cutting blade loss • Start up loss • Minor stoppage / Idling loss. • Speed loss - operating at low speeds. • Defect / rework loss • Closing loss
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen (continued) Important points about 8 big losses Equipment failure that causes more than 10 minutes stoppages of machines is called breakdown loss Set up loss is the time that elapses for the change of the type of a model in the machine In order to decrease set-up time under 10 minutes there is a method called SMED (Single Minute Exchangeof Die ) which is improved by Shigeo Shingo. Also this method can be used to reduce other losses such as cutting blade loss
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen (continued) 5 big losses that impede human work efficiency • Management loss • Operating motion loss • Line organization loss • Manipulation loss • Measurement and adjustment loss
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen(continued) Important points about 5 big losses • Manipulation loss refers to the losses that are obligatory to do but do not create any value • Lifting or lowering the equipment and cleaning the machine parts can be considered as manipulation losses.
3.3) Kobetsu-Kaizen(continued) 3 big losses that impede effective use of production resources • Energy loss • Die, jig and tool breakage loss • Yield loss.
3.4) Planned maintenance It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. • establish Preventative and Predictive Maintenance systems for equipment and tooling • Natural life cycle of individual machine elements must be achieved • Correct operation • Correct set-up • Cleaning • Lubrication • Retightening • Feedback and repair of minor defects • Quality spare parts
Lower operating costs Reduced inventory Faster, more dependable throughput Maintenance Improved capacity Higher productivity Continuous improvement Improved quality Benefits of Maintenance
3.5) Quality Maintenance (Hinshitsu-Hozen) Hinshitsu-Hozen is a TPM approach which : • adjusts conditions to zero defect and controls equipment in order not to make quality defects • eliminates quality mistakes by verifying that the measured values for machines are within the standard limits • uses the changes in observed values in order to forecast error probabilities
3.5)Quality Maintenance (continued) Hinshitsu-Hozen Hinshitsu-Hozen approach creates such conditions on the machines that: • the parameters which affect the the product quality of machines are defined and controlled • machines can not produce non-quality products (Poka-Yoke)
3.6) Training • The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. • The goal is to create a factory full of experts. • The different phases of skills are: Phase 1 : Do not know Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do.Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teachPhase 4 : Can do and also teach.
3.6) Training (continued) It is aimed • The maintanence staff to think analitically by increasing their ability levels • The operators made to clean their machines for all the time • To have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who have eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently.
3.6) Training (continued) Groups who need TPM Training • Senior management • Administrators • TPM office and committee members • Engineers and technicans • Production workers
3.7) Office TPM • TPM interests all the employees. • Not only employees working in the plant but also the office employees are the elements of TPM • Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM.(namely Jishu Hozen, Kobetsu Kaizen, Quality Maintenance and Planned Maintenance)
3.7) Office TPM (continued) Improvement of Office TPM • Plant wide TPM rules can be applied to office TPM. • There are 5 major steps in the improvement of office TPM. 1. Step Cleaning and Ordering 2. Step Detecting the failures and mistakes 3. Step Improvements 4. Step Standardization (defining the hierarchy and jobs) 5. Step Autonomous management
3.8)Safety Health and Environment It is aimed: 1. Zero accident 2. Zero health damage 3. Zero fires In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our processes or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis.
4.1) Announce top management’s decision to introduce TPM • State TPM objectives in a company newsletter • Place articles on TPM in the company newspaper
4.2) Introductory education campaign • Seminars for managers • Slide presentations for all employees and giving them TPM handbooks.
4.3) TPM Promotion • Special committees at every level to promote TPM • JH trainings by the group leaders • Newsletters • Articles • Videos • Posters
4.4) Establish basic TPM policies and goals • Analyze existing conditions • Set goals • Predict results
4.5) Preparation and Formulation of a master plan • A master plan lays out your goals, what you will do to achieve them and when you will achieve them • Detailed plans for each pillar have to be prepared
4.6) TPM kick-off • The main kick-off to TPM should take the form of a formal presentation with all the employees attending • This opportunity can be used to gain the full support of the employees • Invite external customers, affiliated and subcontracting companies
4.7) Develop an equipment management program • The tools of Total Quality Management and Continuous Improvement are applied to the management and improvement of equipment • Form project teams • Select model equipment • identify equipment problems • analyze equipment problems • develop solutions and proposals for improvement
4.7) Develop an equipment management program (continued) • Typical membership of a team • five to seven operators • a maintenance person • a technical expert • Tools • Pareto • Cause & effect • Root cause • Methods Analysis
4.8) Develop a planned maintenance program • Set up plans and schedules to carry out work on equipment before it breaks down, in order to extend the life of the equipment • Include periodic and predictive maintenance • Include management of spare parts and tools
4.9) Develop a autonomous maintenance program • A handing-over of maintenance tasks from specialized maintenance personnel to production operators • Promote the seven steps • Tasks to hand over • cleaning • lubricating • inspecting • set-up and adjustment
4.10) Increase skills of production and maintenance personnel • The training sessions must be planned shortly after the kick-off presentation. • 2 major components • soft skills training • technical training • Train leaders together • Have leaders share information with group members
4.11) Develop early equipment management program • The principle of designing for maintenance prevention can be applied to new products, and to new and existing machines. • New products must be designed so that they can be easily produced on new or existing machines • New machines must be designed for easier operations, change over and maintenance