1 / 59

Software Reuse

Software Reuse. Main text: Ian Sommerville, Software Engineering , 8 th edition, chapter 18 Additional readings: Prieto Diaz, " Status Report: Software Reusability ," IEEE Software, 10(3):61-66, May, 1993.

Télécharger la présentation

Software Reuse

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Software Reuse • Main text: • Ian Sommerville, Software Engineering, 8th edition, chapter 18 Additional readings: • Prieto Diaz, "Status Report: Software Reusability," IEEE Software, 10(3):61-66, May, 1993. • Bruce H. Barnes, Terry B. Bollinger, "Making Reuse Cost-Effective", IEEE Software, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 13-24, January/February, 1991

  2. Software reuse • In most engineering disciplines, systems are designed by composing existing components that have been used in other systems. • Software engineering has been more focused on original development but it is now recognised that to achieve better software, more quickly and at lower cost, we need to adopt a design process that is based on systematic software reuse. • Systematic software reuse vs ad-hoc reuse: • Human nature is inherently lazy => developers are happy to find ready-made solutions • Problem: ad-hoc (or copy-paste) reuse may be harmful !

  3. Reuse Taxonomy – what, how, where to reuse ? From [Prieto-Diaz91]

  4. Reuse – by substance • Classification of reuse according to the essence of items to be reused: • Ideas, concepts: • Reuse of abstract concepts – sharing “wisedom” • General solutions to a class of problems: algorithms • Artifacts, components • Reuse of software parts • Processes, procedures, skills • Reusable processes – needs more formalization of software development procedures • Procedure reuse – means also the informal reuse of skills

  5. Reuse – by scope • Classification of reuse according to the form and extent of reuse: • Vertical: reuse within the same domain or application area • Goal: to build generic models for families of systems that can be used as templates for building new system in that domain • Needs: effort in domain analysis and domain modelling • Horizontal: reuse of generic parts in different applications • Example: scientific subrutines • Needs: packaging and presentation of parts; cataloging and classification standards for parts;

  6. Reuse – by technique • Classification of reuse according to the the approach used to implement reuse: • Compositional • Uses existing components as building blocks for new systems • Generative • Reuse at the specification level by means of application or code generators

  7. Reuse – by product • Classification of reuse according to the work products that are reused: • Source code • Design • Specifications • Objects • Text • Architectures

  8. What to reuse • Today’s agenda: (mainly based on chap. 18 from [Sommerville]) • Software building blocks • Concept reuse

  9. Reusing software building blocks • What size are the reused blocks? • Application system reuse • The whole of an application system may be reused: • by incorporating it without change into other systems. (COTS reuse - Detailed in [Sommerville 18.5.1] • by reusing a common architecture used for developing applications from the same family, tailored for specific customers. (Software product lines - Detailed in [Sommerville 18.5.2] • Component reuse • Components of an application from sub-systems to single objects may be reused. Detailed in [Sommerville Chapter 19] • Object and function reuse • Software components that implement a single well-defined object or function may be reused. • Who reuses ? • Third party reuse: COTS • Intra-organizational: Software product lines

  10. Concept reuse • Concepts are abstract, the reuse process includes an instantiation activity • Design patterns. Detailed in [Sommerville 18.2] • Program generators. Detailed in [Sommerville 18.3]

  11. Reuse benefits Fig 18.1. [Sommerville]

  12. Reuse benefits (cont.) Fig.18.1 [Sommerville]

  13. Reuse problems Fig. 18.2 from [Sommerville]

  14. Reuse problems (cont.) Fig. 18.2 [Sommerville]

  15. The reuse landscape • Although reuse is often simply thought of as the reuse of system components, there are many different approaches to reuse that may be used. • Reuse is possible at a range of levels from simple functions to complete application systems. • The reuse landscape covers the range of possible reuse techniques.

  16. Design patterns Component Application Aspect-oriented frameworks product lines software development Component-based C O TS Prog ram development integ ration generators Legacy system wrapping Configurable ver tical applications Service-oriented systems Prog ram libraries The reuse landscape Fig. 18.3 from [Sommerville]

  17. Reuse approaches Fig. 18.4 from [Sommerville]

  18. Reuse approaches (cont)

  19. Reuse planning factors • Key question: given this array of techniques for reuse, which one (if any) to choose ? • The key factors to be considered when planning reuse: • The development schedule for the software. • The expected software lifetime. • The background, skills and experience of the development team. • The criticality of the software and its non-functional requirements. • The application domain. • The execution platform for the software. • Conclusion: whether reuse is achieved or not is often a managerial rather than technical issue

  20. Reuse Investment Cost Estimated cost w/o reuse Estimated cost w/o reuse . . . Cost w/ reuse Cost w/ reuse Reuse investments $ Savings $ Savings Net profit Net loss Reuse producer activities Reuse consumer activities From [Barnes&Bollinger91]

  21. Reusing parts - Size of reuse units • Possible reuse units: • Objects: often too fine-grained and too specialised for a particular application • Application frameworks: larger-grain abstractions • Application frameworks: • Frameworks are a sub-system design made up of a collection of abstract and concrete classes and the interfaces between them. • The sub-system is implemented by adding components to fill in parts of the design and by instantiating the abstract classes in the framework. • Frameworks are moderately large entities that can be reused.

  22. Framework classes • System infrastructure frameworks • Support the development of system infrastructures such as communications, user interfaces and compilers. • Middleware integration frameworks • Standards and classes that support component communication and information exchange. • Enterprise application frameworks • Support the development of specific types of application such as telecommunications or financial systems.

  23. Extending frameworks • Frameworks are generic and are extended to create a more specific application or sub-system. • Extending the framework involves • Adding concrete classes that inherit operations from abstract classes in the framework; • Adding methods that are called in response to events that are recognised by the framework. • Problem with frameworks is their complexity which means that it takes a long time to use them effectively.

  24. Example: Model-view controller • System infrastructure framework for GUI design. • Allows for multiple presentations of an object and separate interactions with these presentations. • MVC framework involves the instantiation of a number of patterns (as discussed earlier under concept reuse).

  25. Example: Model-view-controller Fig. 18.10 from [Sommerville]

  26. Application system reuse • Involves the reuse of entire application systems either by configuring a system for an environment or by integrating two or more systems to create a new application. • Reuses large-grain assets • Two approaches covered here: • COTS product integration; • Product line development.

  27. COTS product reuse • COTS - Commercial Off-The-Shelf systems – a software system that can be used without change by its buyer • Examples of COTS: database management systems, web browser, e-mailer • COTS systems are usually complete application systems that offer an API (Application Programming Interface). • Building large systems by integrating COTS systems is now a viable development strategy for some types of system such as E-commerce systems. • The key benefit is faster application development and, usually, lower development costs.

  28. COTS design choices • Which COTS products offer the most appropriate functionality? • There may be several similar products that may be used. • How will data be exchanged? • Individual products use their own data structures and formats. • Writing adapters that convert from one representation to another • What features of the product will actually be used? • Most products have more functionality than is needed. You should try to deny access to unused functionality.

  29. Client W eb browser E-mail system Server E-commerce Ordering and Adaptor system invoicing system Adaptor E-mail system COTS Example: E-procurement system Convert formats of orders Convert notifications into emails Fig. 18.11 from [Sommerville]

  30. COTS products reused • On the client, standard e-mail and web browsing programs are used. • On the server, an e-commerce platform has to be integrated with an existing ordering system. • This involves writing an adaptor so that they can exchange data. • An e-mail system is also integrated to generate e-mail for clients. This also requires an adaptor to receive data from the ordering and invoicing system.

  31. COTS system integration problems • Lack of control over functionality and performance • COTS systems may be less effective than they appear • Problems with COTS system inter-operability • Different COTS systems may make different assumptions that means integration is difficult • No control over system evolution • COTS vendors not system users control evolution • Support from COTS vendors • COTS vendors may not offer support over the lifetime of the product

  32. Software product lines • Software product lines or application families are applications with generic functionality that can be adapted and configured for use in a specific context. • All members of the family share a common core: • The application-specific architecture • A set of core components • Adaptation (creation of individual family members) may involve: • Component and system configuration; • Adding new components to the system; • Selecting from a library of existing components; • Modifying components to meet new requirements.

  33. Specialisation in a product line • Platform specialisation • Different versions of the application are developed for different platforms. • Environment specialisation • Different versions of the application are created to handle different operating environments e.g. different types of communication equipment. • Functional specialisation • Different versions of the application are created for customers with different requirements. • Process specialisation • Different versions of the application are created to support different business processes.

  34. Product line configuration • Software product lines are designed to be reconfigured. • Reconfiguration: • Adding or removing components • Defining parameters and constraints for components • Including knowledge of business processes • Software product lines can be configured at 2 points in the development process: • Deployment time configuration • A generic system is configured by embedding knowledge of the customer’s requirements and business processes. The software itself is not changed. • Design time configuration • A common generic code is adapted and changed according to the requirements of particular customers.

  35. Example of deployment-time configuration: Configuration of an ERP system Fig. 18.12 from [Sommerville]

  36. Example: ERP systems • An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a generic system that supports common business processes such as ordering and invoicing, manufacturing, etc. • These are very widely used in large companies - they represent probably the most common form of software reuse. • The generic core is adapted by including modules and by incorporating knowledge of business processes and rules.

  37. Design time configuration • Software product lines that are configured at design time are instantiations of generic application architectures (see Chapter 13). • Involves changing and extending the source code of the core system • Offers greater flexibility than deployment-time configuration • Generic products usually emerge after experience with specific products.

  38. Product line architectures • The decision to design a generic product line becomes explicit at a point, otherwise changes may corrupt the application structure • Architectures must be structured in such a way to separate different sub-systems and to allow them to be modified. • The architecture should also separate entities and their descriptions and the higher levels in the system access entities through descriptions rather than directly.

  39. Product line: Vehicle despatching • A specialised resource management system where the aim is to allocate resources (vehicles) to handle incidents. • Versions for: police, fire service, ambulance service • Adaptations include: • At the UI level, there are components for operator display and communications; • At the I/O management level, there are components that handle authentication, reporting and route planning; • At the resource management level, there are components for vehicle location and despatch, managing vehicle status and incident logging; • The database includes equipment, vehicle and map databases.

  40. A despatching system Fig. 18.14 from [Sommerville]

  41. Product instance development Fig. 18.15 from [Sommerville]

  42. Product instance development • Elicit stakeholder requirements • Use existing family member as a prototype • Choose closest-fit family member • Find the family member that best meets the requirements • Re-negotiate requirements • Adapt requirements as necessary to capabilities of the software • Adapt existing system • Develop new modules and make changes for family member • Deliver new family member • Document key features for further member development

  43. Concept reuse • When you reuse program or design components, you have to follow the detailed design decisions made by the original developer of the component. • This may limit the opportunities for reuse. • One way around is to reuse abstract designs (concepts) that do not include implementation details • You must implement the abstract design for your application • Examples of reusable concepts: algorithms, abstract data types, design patterns • Main approaches to concept reuse are: • Design patterns • Generative programming

  44. Design patterns • A design pattern is a way of reusing abstract knowledge about a problem and its solution. • A pattern is a description of the problem and the essence of its solution. • It should be sufficiently abstract to be reused in different settings. • Patterns often rely on object characteristics such as inheritance and polymorphism.

  45. Pattern elements • Identification of a pattern [GoF]: • Name - A meaningful pattern identifier. • Problem description – when the pattern can be applied • Solution description - Not a concrete design but a template for a design solution that can be instantiated in different ways. • Consequences - The results and trade-offs of applying the pattern.

  46. Example: The Observer pattern • Name • Observer. • Description • Separates the display of object state from the object itself. • Problem description • Used when multiple displays of state are needed. • Solution description • See slide with UML description. • Consequences • Optimisations to enhance display performance are impractical.

  47. Example: Multiple displays Fig. 18.6 from [Sommerville]

  48. Example: The Observer pattern Fig. 18.7 from [Sommerville]

  49. Reuse through patterns - conclusion • The use of patterns is an effective form of reuse • Disadvantage: only experienced software engineers who have a deep knowledge of patterns can use them effectively • Experience needed to recognise generic situations where a pattern can be applied

  50. Generator-based reuse • Concept reuse through patterns: • relies on describing the concept in an abstract way and leaving it up to the software developer to create an implementation • Generator-based reuse: • Program generators involve the reuse of standard patterns and algorithms. • These are embedded in the generator and parameterised by user commands. A program is then automatically generated. • Generator-based reuse is possible when domain abstractions and their mapping to executable code can be identified. • A domain specific language is used to compose and control these abstractions.

More Related