While you are waiting… Please complete the K-W-L chart in your Packet (pg. 4). • What do you KNOW about accommodations and modifications? • What do you WANT to know about accommodations and modifications?
Accommodations & Modifications Presented by Beverly Bryant LaToya Lawrence Krista McAtee Department of Special Education
Ground rules • Please silence your cell phones • We have scheduled breaks, but please take one if needed. • Please use the Parking Lot for questions, we will try to get to all of them during the breaks.
Activity #1 • Find the index card in your packet • Each card belongs to 1 of 4 categories • Sort yourselves by category • Be prepared to report the following: - Category - Items in your category - How you determined your category
To assist both general and special educators in developing, implementing and sustaining appropriate accommodations and modifications to meet the needs of students with disabilities What is the purpose of this workshop?
Objectives Participants will be able to: • Compare and contrast laws • Explain the difference between accommodations and modifications • Apply appropriate accommodations and modifications to specific student needs
What is People First Language? “People First Language puts the person before the disability, and describes what a person has, not who a person is.” Kathie Snow
Example A child with Down Syndrome Boy who has autism Child with cerebral palsy Student who receives behavioral services Typical kid General Education
Why should we use PFL? • People with disabilities are . • Disability is a natural part of the human experience. • 1 in 5 people have a disability. PEOPLE FIRST
Activity #2 • Find the clothespin in your packet. • Attach the clothespin to your person. • Until the next break, listen to your peers and presenters for People First Language. • When you hear someone use language that is NOT People First, you may take their pin. • The person with most pins wins!!!
What Does the Law Say? Federal and state laws and regulations require schools to provide accommodations and modifications to make sure that students with disabilities have access to an appropriate education program. • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA 2004) requires that students with disabilities have the opportunity to be involved and make progress in the general curriculum. • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires that accommodations be provided to students with disabilities, even if they don’t have an IEP. • The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits discrimination against any people with disabilities.
Federal Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Requirements34 C.F.R. Section 300.114 Each public agency shall ensure – (i) That to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, … are educated with children who are nondisabled; and
Federal LRE Requirements (ii) That special classes, separate schooling or other removal of children with disabilities from the general educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in general classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
Federal LRE Requirements34 C.F.R. 300.116 (e) A child with a disability is not removed from education in age-appropriate general classrooms solely because of needed modifications in the general curriculum. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1412 (a)(5))
Continuum of LRE Options “...a continuum of alternative placements is available to meet the needs of children with disabilities... including instruction in general classes, special classes, special schools, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals.” (Federal Register, 1977).
Continuum of Alternative Placements …includes instruction in: special classes child’s home regular classes special schools hospitals or institutions << Less More >> Restrictive
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) • calls for participation of students with disabilities in high quality, yearly, academic assessment • increases accountability for academic standards, academic achievement, and the inclusion of all students • requires that all students be assessed at his/her assigned grade level
Provisions of both NCLB and IDEIA 2004 include: • the use of scientifically based instructional methods, curricular materials, and intervention strategies • early identification of learning problems • ongoing monitoring to determine the impact of the instruction and curriculum • the design and implementation of individualized interventions for students who do not respond to the general curriculum and instruction • the inclusion of ALL students in one accountability system • documentation of student outcomes through Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) measures http://www.msdaz.org/espweb/NCLBIDEIA.htm
What is an Individualized Education Program (IEP)? • A legally binding document that states what services a student will receive and why • Includes the student’s placement, services, academic and behavioral goals, a behavior plan (if needed), and progress reports from teachers and therapists • Planned at an IEP meeting • The IEP team looks at the student’s needs and decides what kind of accommodations and modifications are needed
IEPs . . . • “Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) are not only legally required but also considered essential to the educational successes of students who are eligible for special education services. IEP development involves teams conducting, summarizing, and integrating results from a variety of assessment instruments.” • “All IEP goals must be “measurable” and, as such, must be behaviorally clear and specific. In addition, goals must be aligned to the TN Curriculum Standards while meaningful to students.” (Partnerships for EdExcellence)
Closing the gap between research and practice has always been best practice, now it is required by the law!!!
Accommodations and Modifications • What are accommodations and modifications? • Are they the same thing? • When do you use them? • Who determines when and what to use?
Accommodations the actual teaching supports and services that the student may require to successfully demonstrate learning Accommodations should not change expectations to the curriculum grade levels.
Accommodations • Changes in how a student accesses information and demonstrates learning • Do not substantially change the instructionallevel, content, or standard • Changes made in order to provide a student with equal access to learning and equal opportunity to show what he or she knows and can do
Accommodations Under NCLB, accommodations are defined as changes in testing materials or procedures that ensure that an assessment measures the student's knowledge rather than the student's disability.
What does research say? Accommodation policies vary considerably from state to state. Interestingly, 12 states even extend eligibility for accommodations to all students (Clapper, Morse, Lazarus, Thompson, & Thurlow, 2005). Approximately two-thirds of special education students have been afforded accommodations in statewide assessments, the most common being extended time, alternative setting, and/or read-aloud accommodations (Bolt & Thurlow, 2004). National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)
What does research say? Accommodations affect test scores for students with disabilities, lowering scores in some cases, raising scores in most others (Chiu & Pearson, 1999; Elliott et al., 1999; Elliott, Kratochwill, & McKevitt, 2001; Kettler et al., 2005; McKevitt, 2000; Koenig & Bachman, 2004; Schulte, Elliott, & Kratochwill, 2001; Tindal, Heath, Hollenbeck, Almond, & Harniss, 1998). National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)
What does research say? The use of read-aloud accommodations on assessments of mathematics for students with low reading skills and the use of Braille for blind students were found to be the most effective accommodations in a meta-analytic synthesis by Tindal & Fuchs (1999). National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)
What does research say? Lowered scores appear to result when accommodations are poorly matched to student need or when the student has not had sufficient opportunity to practice using an accommodation in day-to-day settings prior to the testing situation. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)
Accommodations are for… • Students with a disability who have an IEP or 504 plan • Students without a disability who have barriers to learning • Students who receive ELL services • Students who are at risk of failure
Modifications changes made to curriculum expectations in order to meet the needs of the student Modifications are changes in what the student is expected to learn and demonstrate in the content area.
Modifications • Made when the expectations are beyond the student’s level of ability • Alter the standard or what the test or assignment is supposed to measure • May be minimal or very complex depending on the student’s performance • Must be clearly acknowledged in the IEP
Do fundamentally change standards in terms of instructional level, content, or performance criteria Do not fundamentally change standards in terms of instructional level, content, or performance criteria Changes are made to provide student meaningful & productive learning experiences based on individual needs & abilities Changes are made in order to provide equal access to learning and equal opportunity to demonstrate what is known Grading is same. Grading is different.
Accommodations focus on removing barriers and providing access to the general curriculum. Accommodations are designed for students who have barriers that can be removed to help them demonstrate what they know. Modifications focus on insuring meaningful participation in the general curriculum. Modifications are designed for students who would benefit from participation in the general curriculum even though it is above their ability level. More differences….
Activity #3 • Return to your subject group • Using the chart paper and cards, decide whether the items are accommodations or modifications. • You have 1 minute to get to your group and 1 minute to sort.
Accommodations A multiple choice test on identical facts is provided while other students "fill in the blank” Student receives 10 math problems instead of 20 Homework limited to a certain number of minutes/hours instead amount of work to be completed. Limit information presented on page, large print, and more space between lines. Highlight important text. Students respond verbally instead of writing Modifications Learning letters and letter sounds while classmates read chapter books. Using blocks to build structures while other children do science experiments. Testing on continents while classmates are tested on countries of Europe. Completing assembly tasks while classmates complete independent work. Matching numerals to quantities while classmates put items in sets. Extending a 2 part pattern while classmates identify the unit of a 3 part pattern. Here are the correct answers
Accommodations Modifications (Leveling the playing field) (Everyone plays)
Accommodations (Leveling the playing field) • Knowledge of addition is demonstrated by manipulating blocks instead of through writing • Extra textbooks are provided for home when a child has great organizational difficulties • A scribe is provided to take notes for a child • A multiple choice test on individual facts is provided while other students fill in the blank http://www.learningdisabledkids.com/IEP_training/IEP_ accommodations_modifications_sec_contents.htm
Modifications (everyone plays) • A child works on addition while classmates work on multiplication • A child learns letters and letter sounds while classmates read chapter books • A child uses blocks to build structures while other students do science experiments • A child is given a test on continents while classmates are tested on countries in Europe http://www.learningdisabledkids.com/IEP_training/IEP_ accommodations_modifications_sec_contents.htm
Modifications do change knowledge content and/or the standard.
Who is Responsible? An Accommodation is the “HOW” of the curriculum. *How are we going to get the information to the child and howare we going to test the student’s knowledge? A Modification is the “WHAT” of the curriculum. *What part of the general curriculum does the student need to know to reach his or her fullest potential? Both the general education teacher and special education teacher are responsible for making accommodations and modifications. It is a collaborative effort.