Ancient GreeceUnit 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age World History Core
Cultural Interaction Democratic principles and classical culture flourished during Greece’s golden age.
Why is it important today?!?!? At its height, Greece set lasting standards in art, politics, literature, and philosophy that are still influential today.
Terms: Be able to define these by the end of this PowerPoint • Direct Democracy • Classical Art • Tragedy • Comedy • Peloponnesian War • Philosopher • Socrates • Plato • Aristotle
Setting the Stage……. • For 50 years (477-431 BC) Athens grew intellectually and artistically = Golden Age of Athens • Achievements in: • Drama • Sculpture • Poetry • Philosophy • Architecture • Science
Pericles’ Plan for Athens • leader of Athens through Golden Age • 461-429 BC, aka Age of Pericles • 3 GOALS • (1) strengthen democracy • (2) hold and strengthen empire • (3) glorify Athens
Athenian Democracy US Democracy Both Citizens: Born in US or completed citizenship process Representatives elected to propose and vote on laws Elected President Executive branch made up of elected and appointed officials Juries composed of 12 jurors Defendants and plaintiffs have attorneys; on appeals process Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of government Legislative branch passes laws Executive branch carries out laws Judicial branch conducts trial with paid jurors Citizens: male, 18 years old, born of citizen parents Laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Leader chosen by lot Executive branch composed of a council of 500 men Juries varied in size No attorneys; no appeals, one-day trials
GOAL 1: Strengthen Democracy • Increased # of paid public officials • Having paid officials meant even poor could serve if elected or chosen by lot • Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Important Question?????? • How accurate do you think Pericles’ statement that Athenian democracy was in the hands of the “whole people”?
Goal 2: Hold and Strengthen Empire • Delian League formed after Persian War. Athens took over leadership = dominated all city-states in it • Used $$$ from League to build up Athenian Navy • Athens needed trade (waterways) to obtain grain and raw materials to support the city-state • Athens military strength=Pericles treated members of league as part of an empire • Peloponnesus city-states resisted (Ex. Sparta)
Goal 3: Glorify Athens • Used $$$ from League to make Athens beautiful • Convinced Assembly to buy gold, ivory, and marble with funds • More $$$ was also needed to contract artist, architects, and workers
Glorious Art and Architecture • Goal: Greatest Greek artists/architects to glorify Athens • PARTHENON = center of his plans
Architecture and Sculpture: Parthenon • Parthenon (temple) • 23,000 sq foot building in tradition Greek design • Built to honor Athena (Goddess of wisdom and protector of Athens) • Statue of Athena inside 30 ft tall
Architecture and Sculpture: Sculptors • Graceful, strong, and perfect (ideal beauty) • Faces only show serenity (no other emotion)
Architecture and Sculptures:Classical Art • Classical Art: ancient Greece ideal, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized
Drama and History • Greeks invented drama as an art form and built the 1st theaters • Civic Pride and Honor to Gods • Wealthy put on productions • Plays showed leadership, justice, and duties owed to Gods
Tragedy • Serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal • Tragic hero: important figure and gifted with extraordinary ability • Tragic flaw: hero’s downfall • Sophocles: wrote 100 plays, Oedipus the King • Euripides: Medea
Comedy • Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor • Made fun of politics and respected people • Satire: • Aristophanes: Lysistrata in which women of Athens try to force their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War
History • Recap: Dorian Age, no written records…had works of Homer, but not considered accurate • Herodotus: a Greek, living in Athens, pioneered accurate reporting • Book on Persian War = 1st history book • Thucydides: believed certain events and political situations recur over time = important to write events down
Important Question????? • Do you think that Thucydides was right in his assertion that history sometimes repeats itself??? YES OR NO…..
Athenians and Spartans Go to WAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • Athens = power, prestige, and power = other city-states hostility • SPARTA!!! • Sparta declared war in 431 BC
Important Question????? • What might have been Pericles’ goals in the Peloponnesian War?
Peloponnesian War • Athens = Navy • Sparta = Army • Pericles’ Strategy: avoid land battles and wait for a sea opportunity • Sparta marched into Athens territory • Pericles had no other choice but to bring people into city walls • City safe from hunger as long as ships could come into ports • 2nd year of war PLAGUE outbreak in Athens, killing 1/3rd of population and PERICLES!!! • Athens still continued to fight for several years • 421 BC signed a truce (worn out by war)
Important Question????? • Why might the plague that struck Athens in the second year of the war have been so devastating???
Sparta Gains VICTORY! • Peace did not last, 415 BC Athens sent fleet to Syracuse (Sicily) to destroy them, one of the greatest allies of Sparta • Ended in crushing defeat in 413 BC • Athens, weak and few, continued to fight for nine more years • 404 BC Athenians surrendered • Lost empire, power, and wealth
Philosophers Search for TRUTH! • After war = time of doubt and uncertainty = rise of great thinkers • Determined to seek truth • Philosophers = “lovers of wisdom” • Based philosophy on 2 assumptions: • (1) The universe is put together in an orderly way, subject to absolute and unchanging laws • (2) Understand laws through logic and wisdom
Important Question????? • Why would philosophers start question traditional beliefs at this particular time in Athenian history????
Socrates • Absolute standards did exist for truth and justice • Question yourself and moral character • “The unexamined life is not worth living” • 399 BC, age 60, trial for “corrupting youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s Gods” • His defense: teachings good for Athens, because forced people to think about their actions and values • Condemned to death, drinking hemlock
Important Question????? • How does the trail of Socrates reflect on Athenian democracy???
Plato • Student of Socrates • 370 BC wrote The Republic, set forth vision of a perfectly governed society • Not democracy • All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups • (1) farmers and artisans • (2) warriors • (3) ruling class • Person with greatest insight and intellect from ruling class would e chosen as philosopher-king
IMPORTANT QUESTION??? • Why wasn’t Plato put to death if he was doing the same thing as Socrates was?!?!?
Aristotle • Student of Plato • Questioned nature of world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge • Invented method of arguing according to rules of logic • Invented basis of scientific method used today • Famous pupil Alexander the Great (more information to follow….)
Socrates Alexander the Great Raphael Plato Aristotle
TERMS, defined…… • Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representation • Classical Art: ancient Greece, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized • Tragedy: serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal • Comedy: Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor • Peloponnesian War: Sparta v. Athens • Socrates: philosopher, “the unexamined life is not worth living”, developed Socratic method of teaching, sentenced to death by drinking hemlock • Plato: philosopher, student of Socrates, The Republic was his vision of perfect government • Aristotle: philosopher, student of Plato, invented basis of scientific method and classifying plants and animals, most famous student was Alexander the Great