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KINEMATICS PowerPoint Presentation

KINEMATICS

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KINEMATICS

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    1. KINEMATICS An Introduction to the Physics of Trauma

    2. Trauma Statistics 100,000 trauma deaths/year One-third are preventable Unnecessary deaths often caused by injuries missed because of low index of suspicion Raise index of suspicion by evaluating scene as well as patient

    3. Kinematics Physics of Trauma Prediction of injuries based on forces, motion involved in injury event

    4. Physical Principles Kinetic Energy Newtons First Law of Motion Law of Conservation of Energy

    5. Kinetic Energy Energy of motion K.E. = 1/2 mass x velocity2 Major factor = Velocity Speed Kills

    6. Newtons First Law of Motion Body in motion stays in motion unless acted on by outside force Body at rest stays at rest unless acted on by outside force

    7. Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed Only changed from one form to another

    8. Conclusions When moving body is acted on by an outside force and changes its motion, Kinetic energy must change to some other form of energy. If the moving body is a human and the energy transfer occurs too rapidly, Trauma results.

    9. Types of Trauma Penetrating Blunt Deceleration Compression

    10. Motor Vehicle Collisions Five major types Head-on Rear-end Lateral Rotational Roll-over

    11. Motor Vehicle Collisions In each collision, three impacts occur: Vehicle Occupants Occupant organs

    12. Head-on Collision Vehicle stops Occupants continue forward Two pathways Down and under Up and over

    13. Head-on Collision Down and under pathway Knees impact dash, causing knee dislocation/patella fracture Force fractures femur, hip, posterior rim of acetabulum (hip socket)

    14. Head-on Collision Down and under pathway Upper body hits steering wheel Broken ribs Flail chest Pulmonary/myocardial contusion Ruptured liver/spleen

    15. Head-on Collision Down and under pathway Paper bag pneumothorax Aortic tear from deceleration Head thrown forward C-spine injury Tracheal injury

    16. Head-on Collision Up and over pathway Chest/abdomen hit steering wheel Rib fractures Flail chest Cardiac/pulmonary contusions Aortic tears Abdominal organ rupture Diaphragm rupture Liver/mesenteric lacerations

    17. Head-on Collision Up and over pathway Head impacts windshield Scalp lacerations Skull fractures Cerebral contusions/hemorrhages C-spine fracture

    18. Rear-end Collision Car (and everything touching it) moves forward Body moves, head does not, causing whiplash Vehicle may strike other object causing frontal impact Worst patients in vehicles with two impacts

    19. Lateral Collision Car appears to move from under patient Patient moves toward point of impact

    20. Lateral Collision Chest hits door Lateral rib fractures Lateral flail chest Pulmonary contusion Abdominal solid organ rupture Upper extremity fracture/dislocations Clavicle Shoulder Humerus

    21. Lateral Collision Hip hits door Head of femur driven through acetabulum Pelvic fractures C-spine injury Head injury

    22. Rotational Collision Off-center impact Car rotates around impact point Patients thrown toward impact point Injuries combination of head-on, lateral Point of greatest damage = Point of greatest deceleration = Worst patients

    23. Roll-Over Multiple impacts each time vehicle rolls Injuries unpredictable Assume presence of severe injury Justification for: Transport to Level I or II Trauma Center Trauma team activation

    24. Restrained vs Unrestrained Ejection 27% of motor vehicle collision deaths 1 in 13 suffers a spinal injury Probability of death increases six-fold

    25. Restrained with Improper Positioning Seatbelts Above Iliac Crest Compression injuries to abdominal organs T12 - L2 compression fractures Seatbelts Too Low Hip dislocations

    26. Restrained with Improper Positioning Seatbelts Alone Head, C-Spine, Maxillofacial injuries Shoulder Straps Alone Neck injuries Decapitation

    27. What injury is likely to occur even if a patient was properly restrained?

    28. Pedestrians Child Faces oncoming vehicle Waddells Triad Bumper Femur fracture Hood Chest injuries Ground Head injuries

    29. Pedestrians Adult Turns from oncoming vehicle ODonohues Triad Bumper Tib-fib fracture Knee ligament tears Hood Femur/pelvic fractures

    30. Falls Critical Factors Height Increased height = Increased injury Always note, report Surface Decreased stopping distance = Increased injury Always note, report

    31. Falls Assess body part the impacts first Follow path of energy through body

    32. Fall Onto Buttocks Pelvic fracture Coccygeal (tail bone) fracture Lumbar compression fracture

    33. Fall Onto Feet Don Juan Syndrome Bilateral heel fractures Compression fractures of vertebrae Bilateral Colles fractures

    34. Stab Wounds Damage confined to wound track Four-inch object can produce nine-inch track Gender of attacker Males stab up; Females stab down Evaluate for multiple wounds Check back, flanks, buttocks

    35. Stab Wounds Chest/abdomen overlap Chest below 4th ICS = Abdomen until proven otherwise Abdomen above iliac crests = Chest until proven otherwise

    36. Stab Wounds Small wounds do NOT mean small damage

    37. Gunshot Wounds Damage CANNOT be determined by location of entrance/exit wounds Missiles tumble Secondary missiles from bone impacts Remote damage from Blast effect Cavitation

    38. Gunshot Wounds Severity cannot be evaluated in the field or Emergency Department Severity can only be evaluated in Operating Room

    39. Conclusion Look at mechanisms of injury The increased index of suspicion will lead to: Fewer missed injuries Increased patient survival