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OD Interventions

OD Interventions

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OD Interventions

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  1. OD Interventions

  2. What is an OD intervention? A sequence of planned activities, actions, and events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness

  3. How does OD intervention fit into the OD process? Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo.

  4. Institutionalizing interventions • Organization characteristics • Intervention characteristics • Institutionalization processes • Indicators of Institutionalization

  5. Organization characteristics • Congruence • Stability of environment and technology • Unionization

  6. Intervention Characteristics • Need/Goal specificity • Scope/Level of change target • Focus/Purpose • Internal support • Requirements, Specifications, Constraints • Programmability • Costs/Benefits

  7. Institutionalization processes • Socialization: transmit info. • Commitment • Reward allocation: link rewards to new behaviors. • Diffusion: transfer interventions from one system to another (behaviors become normative) • Sensing and calibration: detect deviations from desired intervention behaviors and take corrective action

  8. Indicators of institutionalization • Knowledge • Performance • Preferences • Normative consensus • Value consensus

  9. Effective interventions can be determined by 3 criteria • The extent to which it fits the needs of the organization • Valid information • Free and informed choice • Internal commitment • The degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes • The extent to which it transfers change-management competence to organization members

  10. Designing Effective Interventions is contingent upon • Individual differences among organizational members, organizational factors, and dimensions of the change process itself • Situational factors • Readiness for Change • Capability to Change • Cultural Context • Capabilities of Change Agent

  11. Contingencies Related to Target of Change • Strategic Issues – transforming company Strategic Interventions • Technology and Structure Issues – divide work into depts & coordinate Techno-structural Interventions • Human Resources Issues – A-S-R organizational members Human Resources Management Interventions • Human Process Issues – socializing organizational members Human Process Interventions

  12. Strategic Interventions • Integrated Strategic Change • Transorganization Development • Mergers & Acquisitions • Culture Change • Self-designing Organizations • Organization Learning & Knowledge Management

  13. Techno-Structural Interventions • Structural Design • Downsizing • Reengineering • Employee Involvement • Work Design

  14. HRM Interventions • Goal Setting • Performance Appraisal • Reward Systems • Career Planning & Development • Coaching and Counseling Activities • Managing Work Force Diversity • Employee Wellness

  15. Human Process Interventions • T-Groups • Process Consultation • Intergroup activities/Relationships • Team Building • Third-party Peacemaking Interventions (Conflict Resolution) • Organization Confrontation Meeting • Large-group Interventions • Grid Organization Development

  16.  Advice for Structuring Interventions • Relevant • Problem oriented or opportunity oriented • Clear goals • Realistic expectations • Experience-based learning and conceptual/cognitive/theoretical-based learning • Easy-going climate • Learn how to learn • Task and process • Total situation should come into play

  17. Advice for sequencing intervention activities • Maximize diagnostic data • Maximize effectiveness • Maximize efficiency • Maximize speed • Maximize relevance • Minimize psychological & organizational strains

  18. Interventions based on causal mechanisms • Discrepancy intervention • Theory intervention • Procedural intervention • Relationship intervention • Experimentation intervention • Dilemma intervention • Perspective intervention • Organizational structure intervention • Cultural intervention

  19. Results expected from Intervention • Feedback • Awareness of norms • Increased interaction • Increased communication • Confrontation • Education • Participation • Increased accountability • Increased energy • Optimism

  20. Evaluation • Feedback to practitioners and organization members about progress and impact of interventions

  21. Research Design Quasi-experimental research designs • Longitudinal measurement • Comparison unit • Statistical analysis

  22. Quasi-Experimental Designs • 3 Un-interpretable Designs • One Group Post-Test (X O1) WHY? • One Group Pretest-Posttest design (O1X O2) WHY? • Post-test only with nonequivalent groups (X O) ( O) WHY?

  23. Untreated Ctrl Group Designs w/Pretests With dependent pretest & posttest samples (most common) O1 X O2 O1 O2 5 ways data can turn out (and their problems) 1. No change in control group 2. Both groups grow apart in same direction 3. Pretest differences diminished 4. Compensatory treatment case without a crossover effect 5. Outcomes that cross-over: these are great results, because…

  24. Other Designs • Untreated Control Group Design with Independent pretest and samples • Untreated control group design with a double pretest • Cohort Designs: O1 X O2

  25. Other Designs • Switching replications design • Reversed-treatment control group design with pretest & posttest • Untreated Control group with double pretest and both independent and dependent samples • Designs without pretests

  26. Human Process Interventions Intergroup Interventions

  27. Process Consultation (Review) • A set of activities on the part of the consultant that helps the client to perceive, understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment.

  28. Group Processes • Communications among group members • Functional roles of group members • Problem-solving and decision-making • Group norms and growth • Leadership & Authority

  29. Work roles • Intergroup relationships require understanding of roles, responsibilities, boundaries. • Who is in one’s role set? • Role stressors

  30. Role Stressors • Role Overload • Role Ambiguity • Role Conflict

  31. Strategies for Conflict Resolution • Prevent conflict through mandate or separation of the parties • Set limits on the timing and extent of the conflict • Help the parties to cope differently with the conflict • Attempt to eliminate or resolve the basic issues in the conflict

  32. Resolving Intergroup Conflict • Groups and consultant convene to address issues • Groups are asked to address 3 questions • What qualities/attributes best describe our group? • What qualities/attributes best describe their group? • How do we think the other group will describe us? • Groups exchange and clarify answers • Groups analyze the discrepancies and work to understand their contribution to the perceptions • Groups discuss discrepancies and contributions • Groups work to develop action plans on key areas

  33. Microcosm Groups • Small groups that solve problems in the larger system • Small group member characteristics must reflect the issue being addressed (e.g., if addressing diversity, group must be diverse) • Primary mechanism for change is “parallel processes”

  34. Microcosm Group Process • Identify an issue • Convene the microcosm group • Provide group training • Address the issue in the group • Dissolve the group

  35. Quality Circles • 12-20 members • Formed to resolve a particular problem • Disband when resolution is institutionalized

  36. Organizational mirroring • Representatives from different groups • Observed by hosts • Resembles a Fishbowl