GCSE B453 Leeds East Academy Developing Physical Education Revision
D/S Developing skills, techniques and motivation • The learning of skills through a range of methods
D/S Developing skills, techniques and motivation • Key Terms – In the MOOD to develop skill Motivation – The desire to succeed and improve performance Operant conditioning – A process in which the performer amends their performance through positive or negative reinforcement. Observational learning - Observational learning, also called social learning theory, occurs when an observer’s behaviour changes after viewing the behaviour of a model. Demonstration – A response to the observation of a skilled performer.
D/S Developing skills, techniques and motivation • Skills are best learnt when:
D/S The importance of different types of feedback If these are done ineffectively, there will be a decrease In motivation. If these are done effectively, there will be an increase In motivation.
D/S The importance of goal setting PEA FACE erformance xercise Adherence ids Motivation ocus llows Progress ontrol Anxiety nabling Success
GOAL - SETTING • Specific • Measurable • Achievable or agreed • Realistic • Time-phased • Exciting • Recorded.
P/M Developing physical and mental capacity • functions of the skeleton http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZxLfJRd4cs
Interactive Activity • http://prezi.com/wf9ppndiegyh/function-of-the-skeleton/
Associated problems with joints and how to avoid them through physical activity and healthy lifestyles: • Inflammation of joints • Arthritis • Osteoarthritis. • Application of these via practical examples.
Structure of joints and the value of healthy and efficient joints: • Ligament = Connects bone to bone • Cartilage = Spongy tissue which protects • Synovial fluid = Lubricant to allow smooth movement • Tendon = Connects muscle to bone
Types of joint: • Hinge – elbow and knee: To enable effective movement – giving examples. Movement = Contraction and extension Only • Ball and socket – shoulder: To enable effective movement – giving examples. Movement = Contraction, extension, rotation, abduction and adduction
Identify the Movements • Flexion • Extension • Rotation • Abduction • Adduction. • Application of these movements via practical examples.
Understanding the muscular system in relation to physical performance • Deltoid; Trapezius; Latissimusdorsi; Pectorals; Biceps; Triceps; Abdominals; Quadriceps; Hamstrings)
The roles of muscle in movement • Prime movers • Antagonist • Synergist • Antagonistic pairs. Candidates should be able to describe these roles and give applied practical examples of appropriate muscle groups that are used when participating in specific physical activities.
Role and function of tendons • The value of healthy and efficient muscles and tendons with associated problems and how to avoid them: • Soreness • Strain • Overuse • Inflammation • Tendonitis.
Key Terms • aerobic respiration The chemical reaction in which energy is released from glucose in the presence of oxygen. The products of this process are carbon dioxide and water • anaerobic respiration The chemical reaction in which energy is released energy from glucose without oxygen. In performers, the glucose is partly broken down to form lactic acid with the release of a small amount of energy. • glucose A type of carbohydrate which is broken down to release energy during respiration and is produced by photosynthesis. Simple sugars are for immediate energy and complex starches are stored in liver and muscles as glycogen and released slowly. • lactic acid The substance produced in muscles as a result of anaerobic respiration, which occurs due to insufficient oxygen. It causes muscle fatigue. Also produced by some bacteria from lactose (milk sugar) in the production of yoghurt. • lungs Organs in which exchange of gases between air and blood takes place. Oxygen enters and carbon dioxide leaves the organ through millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli which provide a large surface area for gas exchange. • oxygen debt The amount of oxygen required to break down lactic acid that accumulates in muscles as a result of anaerobic respiration. The lactic acid is produced when there is an insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles following vigorous exercise. Light stretching and cool-down will speed up Lactate build-up in muscles.
The effects of lactic acid • Give applied examples of when lactic acid affects exercise and training and the ability to maintain physical activity, to enable participation in an active, healthy lifestyle. Anaerobic threshold The anaerobic threshold, the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulates in the muscles, is considered to be somewhere between 80% and 90% of your maximum heart rate and is approximately 40 beats higher than the aerobic threshold. Your anaerobic threshold can be determined with anaerobic threshold testing. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=fvwp&NR=1&v=hqj9MFkyzWM
P/M Mental Preparation • Control of emotions to enable fair play and to cope with stress. • The effects of mental preparation for performance: • Relaxation • Focusing • Raising confidence. • Application of these methods via practical examples.
Short term effects of an active, healthy lifestyle • Respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume • Heart rate, cardiac output and stroke volume • Muscle fatigue; increase in temperature. Changes in blood-flow to muscles during exercise with identification of the vascular shunt mechanism.
Long term effects of an active, healthy lifestyle • Heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output • Lung volumes and rate of recovery • Increase in strength of muscle fibres; hypertrophy; increased tolerance to lactic acid. • Application of these via practical examples.
Exercise and training principles that affect improving health and fitness • Identification and description of: • Specificity • Progression • Overload = FITT • Reversibility. • Variance
Identification of the FITT principle and applied practical examples of how these might affect health and fitness • Frequency • Intensity • Time • Type.
Definitions and examples of aerobic and anaerobic exercise and training With O2 Both Without O2 Circuit training Flexibility training Weight training Plyometrics Continuous training Fartlek Interval training.
Identifying potential hazards in a range of settings related to the role of participant, leader or official • The gymnasium/sports hall/fitness centre • Playing field • Artificial outdoor areas • Court areas • Outdoor adventurous areas. • Application of potential hazards via practical examples.
How to reduce risks and injuries • Minimising risks through knowledge of: • Correct clothing/footwear • Personal protective equipment • Health and Safety procedures • Lifting, carrying and placing equipment safely • Appropriate level of competition • Warm up and cool down • The importance of personal hygiene to avoid minor infections.
Opportunities, pathways and participation in Physical Education • Level of participation in sport and physical activity • Effects of media influences and promotional campaigns for an active, healthy lifestyle on levels of participation. • Application of these effects via practical examples. • Effects of sponsorship and availability of funds to follow an active, healthy lifestyle with applied practical examples.
Reasons for participation and non-participation in physical activities and following an active, healthy lifestyle • Local and national provision – examples of levels of provision locally and nationally in different physical activities and their impact on participation. • The roles of the following in promoting participation/leading/officiating in physical activities: • Local authority • Private enterprise • Voluntary organisations (clubs) • National organisations (National Governing Bodies) • Olympic organisations (International Olympic Committee; British Olympic Association).
Current government initiatives to promote active, healthy lifestyles • Five hours of high-quality Physical Education and sport per week • One hour of physical activity per day • Eating five fruit and vegetables per day.
What schools provide to influence young people to get involved in physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle. • The role of the school in promoting an active, healthy lifestyle: • Examination courses/related qualifications • Extra curricular • Links with clubs/agencies • Health awareness programmes. • Application of these using practical examples.