COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY AUDITS PRESENTATION for NEW MEXICO ASSOCIATION OF ENERGY ENGINEERS Albuquerque, New Mexico February 22, 2011 by Donald E. Swick, PE
COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY AUDITS PRESENTATION Following ASHRAE Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits Published by ASHRAE in 2004 Research Project 669 developed standard format for reporting results of analysis. Special Project 56 developed scope of work for various levels of analysis.
GOALS OF TRAINING SESSION Understand current demand for Energy Audits Define four levels of energy audits and application Know level of effort expected for each type of audit Understand Energy Star Target Finder benchmarking Know limitations of simple payback energy analysis Exposure to various energy analysis software tools Awareness of requirements for life cycle cost analysis Identify final Report presentation requirements
ENERGY AUDIT OBJECTIVES The objectives of an energy analysis or audit are to identify and develop modifications that will reduce the energy use and/or cost of operating a building. The results should be presented in a format that will provide the information needed by an owner/operator to decide if any or all of the recommended modifications should be implemented.
CURRENT DRIVERS FOR ENERGY AUDIT SERVICES Demand for energy audit services can be attributed to one or more of the following items: Increasing impact of utility costs on overall operation cost of buildings Competitive real estate market now including energy ranking as a factor in purchasing a building. State and local energy conservation codes requiring higher efficiency for new construction, and building additions or retrofit projects Federal, state and local governments and corporate policies demands construction and occupancy in “LEED Certified or Green Buildings”
10 COMMON PROBLEMS IN ENERGY AUDITS Reference ASHRAE Journal February 2011 10. Inadequate review (30% of Audits) Overestimated savings (53% of Audits) In adequate billing analysis (57% of Audits) Poor Building description (60% of Audits) Low (or missing) installed costs (60% of Audits)
10 COMMON PROBLEMS IN ENERGY AUDITS Reference ASHRAE Journal February 2011 5. Poor improvement selection (63% of Audits) 4. No Life-cycle costing (73% of Audits) 3. Improvement life too long or not provided (73% of Audits) 2. Weak improvement scope (77% of Audits) 1. Missed improvements (80% of Audits)
10 COMMON PROBLEMS IN ENERGY AUDITS Neglected at least three improvement High efficiency HVAC High efficiency Domestic Hot Water High efficiency Lighting Lighting Power Density Lighting Control Wall or Roof Insulation Motor Drives HVAC Controls Fenestration Treatment
KEY ELEMENTS OF AUDIT Analysis of current energy consumption. Description and analysis of existing energy using systems. Presentation of engineering and economic analysis.
ANALYSIS OF CURRENT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Obtain two or more years of utility data, review building plans and conduct site walk-through to establish: Type building, principal use, and floor area, ft2 Annual Energy Utilization Index, kBtu / ft2 Annual Energy Cost Index, $ / ft2 Breakdown spaces by function, use and area. Determine maintenance problems or practices affecting energy efficiency Conduct Benchmarking to compare energy and cost indices with similar facilities
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ENERGY SYSTEMS Description and analysis of the energy-using systems of this building, resulting from on-site observations, measurement, and engineering calculation, including: Envelope (wall, roof, floor, slab, windows, doors skylights) Lighting (interior and exterior) HVAC Domestic hot water Equipment Food preparation Conveying systems Other systems
PRESENTATION OF ENERGY AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS As result of engineering analysis and economic calculations, develop: Breakdown of the components of annual energy use and cost Recommended energy conservation measures including predicted savings and cost to implement Description and cost estimate of necessary repairs in order for energy conservation measures to be effective A description and cost estimated of measurement and verification methods needed to determine project effectiveness Energy analysis summary Present and target energy use and cost Savings from recommended measures and comparison to ultimate target
PROCEDURES FOR ENERGY AUDIT AND ANLYSIS Provide sufficient information for the owner/operator to understand: Breakdown of the components of annual energy use and cost Need to commit necessary resources for building energy costs, operation and maintenance costs including personnel, and any energy efficiency capital improvement projects Appropriateness of recommended measures, based on institutional and organization issues (i.e. regulatory environment, financial options, and occupant requirements) Understand different levels of energy analysis can be performed based on specific purpose of owner from simple ranking of building energy usage, to contemplating major energy-saving capital improvements requiring significant level of confidence in results of engineering and economic analysis
CATEGORIES OF ENERGY AUDIT AND ENGINEERING ANALYSIS As result of various needs of building owner, the levels of analysis are organized into the following categories: Preliminary Energy Use Analysis Level I Analysis – Walk-Through Analysis Level II Analysis – Energy Survey and Analysis Level III Analysis – Detailed Analysis of Capital Intensive Modifications
PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS Potential Owner Interface and Information Executive Management - Corporate goals Facility Managers - Drawing, maintenance policies, previous energy conservation projects, schedule of facilities.
PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS Review of Utility Data Show examples of data for various facilities and explain what we can determine from the data about a facility Determine potential local utility rebate programs
PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS EPA Energy Star Benchmarking Demonstrate Energy Star Target Finder analysis (based on U.S. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey) https://www.energystar.gov/istar/pmpam/
PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS EPA Energy Star Benchmarking Demonstrate Energy Star Target Finder analysis (based on U.S. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey) http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_bldg_design.bus_target_finder
PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS EPA Energy Star Benchmarking U.S. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey) http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/detailed_tables_2003.html#consumexpen03
PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS - REPORT Provide description of facility, occupancy, usage and floor area. Present Summary Table / Graph of Utility Bills Annual totals per fuel, average cost ($/unit) and cost per sq. ft. floor area Present results of Energy Star Target Finder Present preliminary list of potential operation, maintenance and energy efficiency projects for further analysis.
LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS Complete steps of a Preliminary Audit. Potential Owner Interface and Information Facility Managers - Compare drawing to actual facility conditions, ask about equipment replacement plans, maintenance procedures, effectiveness of previous energy conservation projects, operation and schedule of equipment and facilities.
LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS Existing Building Survey Information - Review drawings and documentation Envelope components (Wall Roof, Floor, Windows, Doors, Skylights, etc.) HVAC Systems equipment components and control strategies Lighting fixture types and controls Other energy usage systems Occupancy information
LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS Identify savings and cost analysis for low cost/no cost measures Lighting retrofits having fastest payback Better controls systems or strategies Obvious energy wasting operation (i.e. malfunctioning equipment, simultaneous heating and cooling) Include utility rebates in cost analysis
LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS Provide a list of potential capital improvement measures (further analysis required) Building envelope feature (i.e. tinting or insulated windows, better roof insulation) HVAC retrofits including higher efficiency equipment, VFD for fans and pumps, improved building automation controls) Lighting retrofit requiring significant investment such as LED light sources, high bay and light poles.
LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE - REPORT Provide description of facility, occupancy, usage and floor area. Present Summary Table / Graph of Utility Bills Annual totals per fuel, average cost ($/unit) and cost per sq. ft. floor area Quantify savings potential of changing eligible alternate fuel rate structures. Present results of Energy Star Target Finder
LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE - REPORT Summary of special problems or needs identified for operational or maintenance procedures. Preliminary end use energy breakdown estimate of major energy using components of the building.
LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE - REPORT List of low cost/no cost savings estimate of energy savings. List of potential capital improvement projects with initial estimate of energy savings and installation costs.
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Complete steps of a Level I Walk Through Analysis services Potential Owner Interface and Information Executive Managemenr - Corporate financial criteria and guidelines Facility Managers - Discuss potential energy conservation projects to compliment equipment replacement plans, anticipated changes to operation and schedule of equipment and facilities.
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Potential Owner Interface and Information (cont.) Operators and Technicians - Status of current equipment, validation of operational controls, existing problems areas, actual maintenance level of implementation, and modification not shown on drawings
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Existing Building On-Site Survey Information, validate drawings and other documentation Envelope components (Wall Roof, Floor, Windows, Doors, Skylights, etc.) HVAC Systems components and control strategies and setpoints Lighting fixture types, quantities and controls Equipment schedules , space and occupancy information
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Breakdown of energy use within building Provide estimate based on Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration Conduct preliminary energy analysis with energy simulation software (i.e eQuest, Trane Tracer or Carrier HAP-Wizard level).
SELECTION OF ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/qualified_software.html
eQuest ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE http://doe2.com/equest/index.html
TRANE TRACE 700 ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE http://www.trane.com/Commercial/DNA/View.aspx?i=1136
CARRIER HAP ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE http://www.commercial.carrier.com/commercial/hvac/general/0%2C%2CCLI1_DIV12_ETI496_MID4355%2C00.html
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Identify recommended changes to operation and maintenance activities Provide energy savings and cost analysis (i.e. simple payback) of practical measures that meet owners constraints and capital improvement criteria Building envelope feature (i.e. tinting or insulated windows, skylights)
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Provide energy savings and cost analysis (cont.) HVAC retrofits involving complete replacement of existing systems including higher efficiency equipment, VFD for fans and pumps, improved building automation controls Lighting retrofit replacing MV or HID High bay fixtures with T5 Reflective High bay Fixtures or LED lamps for more efficient lamp/fixture systems. Include utility rebates in cost analysis
ABB FAN SAVER SOFTWARE • http://www.abb.com/product/seitp322/5b6810a0e20d157fc1256f2d00338395.aspx
ABB PUMP SAVER SOFTWARE http://www.abb.com/product/seitp322/5fcd62536739a42bc12574b70043c53a.aspx
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Provide a list of capital intensive improvement that require further data and analysis. Building envelope feature (i.e. better wall or roof insulation) HVAC retrofits involving complete replacement of existing systems andsignificant upgrades to building automation controls).
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS Provide a list of capital intensive improvement that require further data and analysis (cont.) Lighting retrofit requiring significant investment such as LED light sources for high bay and light poles. Alternative energy generation systems like geothermal, solar PV, solar hot water, and wind energy.
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS - REPORT Provide summary of energy use and cost associated with each major component. Specify Computer software analysis utilized. Compare actual total utility usage and calculated energy estimates. Provide description of building including floor plans, and inventories of major equipment (place details in Appendices)
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS - REPORT List measure that are impractical or not applicable for the facility Provide discussion of recommended energy conservation measures Existing situation now wasting energy Measures impact on health, safety and comfort Required repairs of existing equipment Impact on occupants, O&M procedures and staff Useful life of equipment
LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS - REPORT Provide Summary Table with name of energy conservation measure, estimated annual energy savings, estimated installation cost, and simple payback period. Provide project summary for implementation of all recommendations measures. Recommend Measurement and Verification methods to validate performance of projects. Discuss potential capital intensive measures requiring a Level III analysis.