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SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA

SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA

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SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA

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  1. SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA

  2. SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA • SPORTING ACTIVITIES IN THE NORTH AMERICAN EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS FOLLOWED THE TRENDS OF THEIR BRITISH AND EUROPEAN COUNTERPARTS • COLONISTS BROUGHT TO THE NEW WORLD MANY OF THE SPORTS TRADITIONS FROM THEIR PLACES OF ORIGIN • SPORTING ACTIVITIES DEVELOPED IN DIFFERENT WAYS, HOWEVER, ACCORDING TO REGION, CLASS AND DEGREE OF URBANIZATION • IN THE 18TH CENTURY URBAN AREAS WITH SIGNIFICANT COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE ATLANTIC TRADE GENERATED A VENUE FOR COMMERCIAL SPORTS.

  3. SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA • ORIGINAL EUROPEAN SETTLERS IN THE CONTINENT PARTICIPATED IN SPORTING TRADITIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF RELIGIOUS CELEBRATIONS • SPORTING ACTIVITIES WERE CONSIDERED PART OF LEISURE TIME DURING THE SABBATH, ORGANIZED AND SUPERVISED BY RELIGIOUS AUTHORITIES • AS THE COMPOSITION OF PROTESTANT, ESPECIALLY PURITAN, COMMUNITIES VARIED ACCORDING TO REGION, RESTRICTIONS TO PLAY AND PRACTICE SPORTS DURING SABBATH WERE ENFORCED IN DIFFERENT DEGREES

  4. SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA • SECULARIZATION OF SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA BECAME AN IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENT IN THE 18TH CENTURY • FOLLOWING EUROPEAN TRENDS, THE PROSPERITY OF URBAN TOWNS ORIENTED TOWARDS MERCANTILE ACTIVITIES GENERATED A POTENTIAL MARKET FOR LEISURE ACTIVITIES ORGANIZED FOR COMMERCIAL PROFIT, NAMELY BOXING AND HORSE RACING.

  5. SPORTS IN COLONIAL AMERICA • REGIONAL DIFFERENCES (SOUTH-NORTH) • SOUTHERN TRADITIONS: • HORSE RACES • PRIZE FIGHTING • COCKFIGHTING • HUNTING • SPORTS VERY POPULAR IN SOUTHERN AREAS, ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINITY AND RACIAL PRIVILEGES • WORK AND SERVITUDE WERE IDENTIFIED WITH BLACK SLAVES, LEISURE AND FREEDOM WITH WHITE COLONISTS

  6. CLASS AND SPORTS IN THE SOUTH • PLANTERS ASSOCIATED WITH RACE TRACKS, IMPORTATION OF HORSES AND IMITATION OF ENGLISH TRADITIONS • 18TH CENTURY: NEW FENCED TRACKS THAT CHARGED FOR ADMISSION, JOCKEY CLUBS • RACES BECAME WEEKLY EVENTS, VERY ORGANIZED (TIMING, WEIGHTS, COLORS) • RACES BECAME SOCIAL EVENTS ON THEIR OWN.

  7. FIST FIGHTS • “EYE GOUGING” FREE STYLE, BARE FIST FIGHTS • FIGHTERS FROM THE LOWER CLASSES • ASSOCIATED WITH GAMBLING AND DRINKING • SPONTANEOUS AND/OR ORGANIZED (DUEL-LIKE EVENTS) • TAVERN OWNERS SPONSORS

  8. SPORTS MEANINGS IN THE SOUTH • SOURCE OF HONOR AND CLASS IDENTIFICATION • GENTRY: AFFIRMATION OF “ENGLISHNESS” • LOWER CLASSES: RACIAL AND GENDER BOUNDARIES, WHITENESS AND MANHOOD

  9. AFRICAN AMERICAN SPORTS • PLANTATION ACTIVITIES: • COCKFIGHTING • WRESTLING • RACES • OCCASIONALLY FIGHTERS AND HORSE HANDLERS/RIDERS

  10. SPORTS IN THE NORTHERN COLONIES • PURITAN WORK ETHIC • SABBATH RESTRICTIONS AGAINST GAMES • SPORTS SHOULD BE MODERATE AND RENEW MEN FOR WORK • GENTRY CLUBS (FISHING, HUNTING, HORSE RACING) • OTHER SPORTS: GOLF, LAWN BOWLING, SKATING

  11. COMMERCIAL SPORTS IN THE NORTH • COCKFIGHTS • HORSE RACES • FIRST FENCED CIRCULAR TRACK IN NEW YORK 1736 • LOCAL TAVERNS AND SALOONS BECAME THE MAIN SPORTS PROMOTERS AND HOSTED COCKFIGHTS, DANCES AND BOXING MATCHES

  12. SPORTS IN THE 18TH CENTURY • CLASS MARKED (GENTRY-ONLY CLUBS) • SPONSORED IN URBAN CENTERS BY LOCAL SALOONS, INNS, BARS, TAVERNS. • ORIENTED TOWARDS A CONSUMMER AND RECREATIONAL CULTURE NO LONGER ATTACHED TO RURAL WORK, CHURCH OR RELIGIOUS CALENDAR • PRIZE FIGHTS AND HORSE RACES SEMI PROFESSIONAL • GAMBLING AND DRINKING