Before You Begin to Design 1 • TARGET AUDIENCE • Decide Who Your Audience is. The more you know about your audience, the better equipped you are to attract their attention and communicate your message. Knowing who the audience is will help you determine the best format in which to communicate with them.
Before You Begin to Design 2 • CONTENT • What do you want to convey? It helps to know exactly what words you want to use (or have to use) on the page to convey your message, because the amount of words and the message will affect how you design your layout. Be ready to edit or cut text.
Before You Begin to Design 3 • IMAGE AREA • Consider the size, shape, and function of your layout. • Draw a mock-up showing where artwork, photos, etc should be placed relative to copy.
Before You Begin to Design 4 • COLOR • Spot color vs. process • Use color for emphasis • Computer-screen color is not necessarily printed color • Paper color affects ink color • PMS - Pantone Matching System
Before You Begin to Design 5 • PRINTING • What printing processes to use. • Communicate with your printer • Make sure materials are available • Spell out everything – leave nothing to “guesswork.” • Provide a hard copy.
Before You Begin to Design • Consider these five things before you begin to design: • TARGET AUDIENCE • CONTENT • IMAGE AREA • COLOR • PRINTING
Say What? bleed typeface serif bi-fold pica font san serif tri-fold widow leading rag saddle stitch orphan kerning justified RGB PDF PMS CMYK
Good Graphic Design Utilizes: Simplicity Emphasis White Space
Simplicity • KISS • Have a good reason for everything you add, and take away anything that you don’t need • Keep headlines and lead paragraphs short • Have a purpose for everything - when in doubt, leave it out • Stick to three or fewer fonts in a layout • Contrast - Balance - Alignment - Repetition - Flow
Emphasis • The most important element on the page should be the most prominent • Emphasis Techniques: • Make it the biggest • Make it the boldest • Placing the element in a shape that is different from others on the page • Making it full intensity when everything else is faded • Adding a border around the element • Changing its color so it is different • Surrounding the element with lots of white space • Tilting it at an angle when other elements are horizontal
Readability/Typography • Style of type, font • Size of type, point • Font enhancements, • underline, shadow, word art • White space • Line length and justification • Color of the text and color of the text background • Page layout
Style of Type • Fonts – There are seven different font groupings, each with their own intended purpose. Old Style used in the body of text where legibility is important. Sans Serif used for display, headlines, and captions. Modernmuch like old style in purpose but has higher contrast on the lettering strokes. Square Serif used for display, headlines, and short blocks of text. Occasionalfor special effects, and should be used sparingly. 3 Text used for special occasions like wedding invitations. Cursive used for special effects.
Thy Type Nomenclature Ascender Ascender Line Thick Waist Line Fillet Font Size Thin Base Line Descender Line Serif Descender
Old Style Type Old Style typefaces have slight differences between the thick and thin strokes, rounded serifs and fillets. These features allow for an eye pleasing amount of white space thus making the fonts easier to read and good for blocks of text. Century Garamond Goudy Old Style
Modern Type Modern Type is very similar to old style. The major difference is there is a much larger contrast between the thick and thin strokes. Modern is light and airy, it is considered a stylish type, and it is very readable in a block of type. Bodoni Times New Roman Century Schoolbook
San Serif Types San Serif TypesSan means without. San serif types have no serifs. There is little or no difference in the thickness of any of the strokes of the letters. Their primary use has traditionally been for headlines and captions. But these typefaces have gained popularity for their use in blocks of type. The lack of serifs allows the letter to be closer together allowing more words to be on the page. The readability is decreased but the cost is reduced. Lucinda Sans Franklin Gothic Arial
Square Serif Types Square Serif Types have square serifs and even stroke width. The common uses for the seldom used square serif types are for display, head lines, and occasionally for a short block of text. Rockwell
Occasional Types Occasional types are used for special effect and create high contrast but should be used very sparingly. These types should never be used to set a block of text. Algerian Chiller Broadway Playbill Stencil
Text Types Text Type and Old English are very difficult to read and are reserved for formal events such as weddings. Due to the ornate nature of the capitol letters, text type should NEVER BE SET IN ALL CAPS. GothicE
Cursive Types Cursive Types are also occasional types and should be used for special effect. They have the ability to show style and class when used in advertising. They can be hard to read and should not be set in all capitol letters. Commercial Script
Line Length A long line length with small font size allows for a lot of words to be placed on a page which saves money but makes the information very hard to read. It is for that very reason that contracts use this format. It is hard to stay on the correct line because readers have to reposition their eyes several times as they read down the length of the line. A short line length with a large font size results in exactly the opposite situation.
White Space White space can add or detract from the readability of a design depending on how much is used. Too little and the design is cramped. Too much and the design is disjointed and unorganized which makes finding what information goes together difficult.
White Space • Allows the eye to “rest” • Makes type easier and faster to read • Resist the urge to fill entire space with words, pictures, charts and graphics • Avoid “gray” pages • White space creates emphasis
Photographs • Resolution - low vs. high • ppi (display) and dpi (printer) • Size - too big or too small • Cropping – when and how • Photo-editing programs (Paint) • Formats – jpg, gif, tiff • Vector images– what are they?
Logos • Less is more • Convey the idea as simply as possible. Few words and colors. • Create logos in a vector program – not Paint, PowerPoint or Publisher. • Here are some examples:
Top 12 Graphic Design Don’ts • Use low resolution photos for print • Use too many different fonts in one design • Use every color in the rainbow just because you can • Put a box around everything • Center everything on the page • Forget to check for widows and orphans LO-RES (web) = 72 dpi HI-RES (print) = 300 dpi
Top 12 Graphic Design Don’ts • Forget white space is your friend – avoid “gray pages” • Use fonts that are too small – 5, 6, 7 point • Use double spaces after punctuation • Underline or use all caps instead of italicizing • Justify type – creates too many hyphens and “rivers” • Rely on the computer for everything – it is only a tool
Right and wrong do not exist in graphic design. There is only effective and non-effective communication.