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Energy metabolism

Energy metabolism

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Energy metabolism

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  1. Introductory Biology, 9 September 2010 Donald Winslow References: Alberts et al. 2008. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th ed., Garland Science, NY; Ch. 2, Ch. 14. Hoefnagels 2009. Biology, 1st ed., McGraw-Hill, NY; Ch. 4 (pp 80-89), Ch. 5 (pp 102-106, 108-110), Ch. 6 (pp 120-126). Energy metabolism

  2. Conservation laws & thermodynamics Conservation of matter Conservation of energy (1st law of thermodynamics)‏ Different forms of energy Kinetic energy Potential energy Heat Electromagnetic radiation etc. 2nd law of thermodynamics

  3. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Entropy increases in closed systems. Entropy is disorder. A closed system does not exchange energy or matter with anything outside it. Transition of energy from one form to another always results in a loss of useful energy. Automobile engine Incandescent light bulb

  4. Objectives Describe how photoautotrophs use solar radiation to build organic molecules that store energy. Explain how respiration and photosynthesis relate to each other in terms of reactants, products, and energy flow. Describe a metabolic cascade, such as glycolysis, and explain the roles of specific enzymes. Explain the citric acid cycle, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation. Explain the roles of ATP, NADH, and NADPH.

  5. Metabolism • Catabolism • Cellular respiration 6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + metabolic energy • Anabolism • Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + solar radiation --> 6O2 + C6H12O6

  6. Cellular respiration Glycolysis Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain Chemiosmotic phosphorylation

  7. Glycolysis (a metabolic cascade) Glucose --> Glucose-6-Phosphate G6P --> Fructose-6-Phosphate F6P --> Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate F16B --> Phosphoglyceraldehyde PGAL --> 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 13BG --> Phosphoglycerate PG --> Phosphoenolpyruvate PEP --> Pyruvate

  8. Cellular respiration • Glycolysis & fermentation • Citric Acid Cycle • Respiratory Electron Transport Chain

  9. Mitochondria • Aligned along microtubules • Outer membrane, inner membrane • Matrix, intermembrane space, cristae • Respiratory electron-transport chain

  10. Photoautotrophs Plants Algae Cyanobacteria Goat’s Rue in Door County, Wisconsin

  11. Photosynthesis