Your Illinois Constitution Packet • Make sure your name is on it. • Bring it every day we have class. • If you are absent a day, you must get notes that you missed from a classmate. • Pay attention. Your teacher will be discussing information on your quizzes and eventually the test itself.
Taking notes • Be sure to write clearly so you can read what you wrote. • Use a highlighter if you want. • Ask questions if you don’t understand something.
Quizzes and Worksheets • You will be responsible to complete all quizzes and worksheets. Each will be graded and count toward your trimester grade. • There are 3 quizzes and at least 5 worksheets in this unit. • You are responsible to make these up if you are absent.
The Illinois Constitution Test • 80 questions • All multiple choice • One class period • Passing grade is a C-(70%). • Retakes will be required if you do not pass the first time.
The word Illinois comes from a Native American phrase. It means “tribe of superior men.” The State Motto is “State Sovereignty, National Union.” The State Slogan is “Land of Lincoln.” The State Nickname is “Prairie State.” Illinois
Illinois is largely an agricultural state (farming). The chief crops that Illinois produces include corn, soybeans, wheat, oats and hay. Illinois Farming
State symbols State Flag State Seal
Illinois’ Five Largest Cities(2010 U.S. Census) • Chicago 2,695,598 • Aurora 197,899 • Rockford 152,871 • Joilet 147,433 • Naperville 141,853 Crystal Lake 40,743 (2010 U.S. Census)
States that Border Illinois Five states border Illinois. They are Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, and Indiana. Michigan does not border Illinois.
History of Illinois A. 1673 – French rule Illinois territory 1. Marquette & Joliet 2. Trading and exploring for the French Government B. French established forts at: 1. Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock 2. Fort de Crevecoeur 3. Pimitouri (Peoria) & Kaskaskia
History of Illinois C. French and Indian War 1. The French lose to the British in 1763. 2. The British now possess most of America. D. Revolutionary War 1. 1778 2. George Rogers Clark defeats British in Illinois area E. After the war, Virginia claimed the Illinois area as a county in 1783.
History of Illinois F. 1787 – 1807 1. Illinois area became attached to a variety of territories. 2. Indiana & Wisconsin G. 1818 1. Illinois became a state on December 3rd 2. Illinois is the 21st state in the Union. 3. Kaskaskia was named the first capital. 4. Shadrach Bond was named the first governor.
History of Illinois H. Indian uprisings 1. Don’t want to leave land 2. Chief Black Hawk 3. Lose to Illinois militia I. State Capitals 1. 1820 – moved from Kaskaskia to Vandalia 2. 1839 – moved from Vandalia to Springfield a. Abraham Lincoln and his colleagues help get the capital moved (Long Nine)
History of Illinois J. 1818 Constitution – 1st 1. Did not interfere with slavery already in state 2. Did not allow anymore slaves to enter K. 1824 – Proposed law 1. Allow slavery? Some people want it 2. Governor Edward Coles will not let it happen 3. Illinois remains a FREE STATE
History of Illinois L. More Slavery Issues 1. Lincoln challenges Stephan A. Douglas for Senate seat 2. “Little Giant” wants people to choose, not the state 3. Both debate the topic, gathers nationwide attention 4. Douglas wins but Lincoln impresses many people 5. Lincoln nominated for and wins Presidency M. 1848 Constitution 1. More power to the people 2. Executive offices will now be elected rather than appointed.
History of Illinois N. 1870 Constitution 1. Constitution changed again 2. Unchanged for 100 years and is outdated O. 1970 Constitution 1. Two major changes a. Have a greater protection on individual rights b. Improve the tax system STOP HERE. STUDY FOR QUIZ #1.
History of Illinois (review) • Illinois became a state in 1818 with a population of 35,000. • Kaskaskia was the first capital, then Vandalia and then Springfield. • Illinois has had four constitutions – 1818, 1848, 1870 and 1970. • The Illinois Constitution is just like the U.S. Constitution but much longer. • A constitution is a plan telling how a government will be run.
Preamble A preamble tells why the constitution is being written – for the welfare of the people and to maintain a representative (democratic) government. There are 14 articles in the Illinois Constitution.
Article IThe Bill of Rights • Inherent and inalienable rights – people have the right to life, happiness, and to be free. It is up to the government to protect these rights. • Due Process of law and equal protection under the law – Due process is the means by which fair treatment is attained. (Hearing/respond) • Religious Freedom
Article I 4. Freedom of speech and freedom of the press 5. Right to assemble (meetings for peaceful purposes) and petition (show opinions/feelings) 6. Freedom from unlawful search, seizures, or invasions of privacy a. Private homes b. Unless there is proof of criminal activity 7. Right of Grand Jury Indictment (paper telling you the crime you committed if there is enough evidence)
Article I 8. Rights of persons accused of crimes – meet with witnesses, call witnesses, speedy public jury trial, and impartial jury. 9. Right of bail (getting freedom before trial) and Writ ofHabeas Corpus (order to bring a person before the court to see if they have been legally imprisoned). 10. Self-incrimination and double jeopardy (a person cannot be tried for the same crime twice). 11. Penalty limitations (Should fit the crime). 12. Right to Remedy and Justice for wrongs done to a person, property, or reputation.
Article I • Right to trial by jury (impartial peers). • No imprisonment for debt (owing money). • Just compensation for property taken for public use – eminent domain. • No ex post facto laws (a law punishing you for something you did before it was illegal). • No discrimination in employment and the sale or rental of property. • No sex discrimination in government. • No discrimination against handicapped. • Condemns insulting statements about persons.
Article I • No quartering of soldiers in peace time. • Right to bear arms subject to police power. • Residents have to obey laws if they are to be effective. • Residents have rights not mentioned in Article 1 (right to vote, free schooling through grade 12, and healthful environment) STOP HERE. STUDY FOR QUIZ #2.
Article II - Powers of state 1. Powers are divided between the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the government. (3 branches) 2. Separation of powers a. No branch is allowed to become more powerful than another b. System of checks and balances to make sure
Article III – Suffrage and Elections • Suffrage means the right to vote • You must be 18 years of age to vote in Illinois • You must be a resident of Illinois for at least 30 days • You cannot vote while you are in jail or if you were convicted of a felony (major crime) • Your right to vote is returned to you if you complete your sentence • Voting is a privilege, not a right! You can lose it.
Article IV – Legislative Branch(Make the Laws) • The General Assembly is when the Senate and the House of Representatives meets together • Members must be 21, a resident of their district for 2 years and a citizen. • There are 59 districts with 1 senator and 2 representatives each a. 3 for each district b. Redistrict after each U.S. census
Article IV • Senators have a 4 year term; representatives have a 2 year term • The chairman (leader) of the Senate is called the President of the Senate • The leader of the House of Rep. is called the Speaker of the House • In case of Impeachment ( to impeach means to accuse of wrongdoing), the House of Rep. starts the proceedings (investigation) and the Senate will hold the trial
Article IV • A bill becomes a law by passing both the House and Senate and then being signed by the governor • It can also be held unsigned for 60 days and then it will become a law • A governor may veto (vote “no”) all of a bill or just parts of it 11. To pass a bill over a veto requires a 3/5 vote from the both the House and the Senate
How a Bill becomes a Law • Legislator introduces a bill (idea) to their part of the General Assembly • The bill is given a number and a title and then read for the first time (the whole thing isn’t read, just the number and title part. Some bills could be really long) • The bill is assigned to a committee to examine if this idea could work a. If it does not pass, it is dead b. If it does, it goes before the entire house
Bill becoming a Law • The bill is read a second time and other legislators may add amendments to it • The bill is read a third time, debated over and voted on by the entire house • If it passes, it must be sent to the other house and all of the previous steps must be followed again
Bill becoming a Law • If the bill passes the second house, it is sent to the governor • The governor can then: a. Sign it into law b. Veto by sending it back to its house of origin with objections c. Leave it alone for 60 days and then it will become a law automatically (A governor can veto the bill anytime during those 60 days)
Article V – Executive BranchEnforces the Law • The Governor: a. Must account for all funds b. Can appoint and remove officers c. Can grant reprieves (temporary suspension or delay in sentence) d. Can grant pardons (set free from punishment) e. Commands the National Guard (our militia) f. Can assemble the Senate to elect a President (if needed)
Article V • The Governor must be 25 years old, resident for 3 years, serve 4 year term • Other Executive Officers: (also must be 25, serve 4 year term) a. Lieutenant Governor – second in command b. Attorney General – Legal officer, states lawyer c. Secretary of state – Maintains records d. Comptroller – Deposits and holds money e. Treasurer – Approves payments, writes checks
Executive Officers Governor Lt. Governor Comptroller Treasurer Secretary of State Attorney General Patrick Quinn Sheila Simon Judy Barr Topinka Dan Rutherford Jesse White Lisa Madigan
Article VI – Judicial BranchInterprets Laws and Justice • 3 Illinois Court Systems: a. Circuit Court – all cases start here b. Appellate Court – you can appeal or ask for your case to be looked at again if convicted the first time c. Supreme Court – if case gets this far, their ruling is considered final • Supreme Court has 7 judges (3 from Cook county area) a. Chief Justice runs the group b. All serve 10 year terms c. Can run for re-election without opposition
Article VII – Local Government • The basic subdivision of Illinois is called the county a. There are 102 counties in Illinois • The county is responsible for many areas of government such as: a. Police Courts b. Roads Land use c. Taxes Elections d. Health Care Parks e. Licensing etc…
Article VII • Counties are also divided into townships which take care of : a. Rural roads b. Assistance to the needy c. Assessment (evaluation) of property • The 1970 Constitution gave counties and cities more power to deal with local problems • This is called Home Rule • This is all designed so that every problem does not fall into one group’s responsibility
Article VIII - Finance Illinois public funds (money), property or credit may only be used for public purposes
Article IX - Revenue • The state taxes in 3 ways: • Property tax – house, land b. Sales tax – clothes, food, etc… c. Income tax – the amount of money that you make at your job (“The more you make, the more they take”)
Article X - Education • The 1970 Constitution set up a State Board of Education • Free education from Kindergarten through 12th grade b. The state does not pay for college
Article XI – Healthful Environment • It is the policy of the State of Illinois and the duty of each person to maintain a healthful environment. Pick up after yourself.
Article XII – State Militia • The Governor is the Commander–in–Chief of the National Guard a. The National Guard is a branch of the U.S. Army b. Protects our state and helps during crisis situations
Article XIII – General Provisions • People convicted of major crimes are ineligible to hold public office a. Must take oath swearing you will follow laws of Illinois b. Break the oath and you face possible impeachment.
Article XIV – Changing the State Constitution • There are 3 provisions: a. 3/5 of the General Assembly must call for a convention. The people of Illinois must approve this call and also the proposals being made for it b. 3/5 of the General Assembly is needed to propose amendments to the people of Illinois c. 3/5 of the General Assembly is needed or a majority is needed to vote on any proposals for passage
Your Illinois Senator & Representative • These people have local offices in McHenry County and represent us in the General Assembly: a. 32nd District State Senator: Pamela Althoff b. 64th District State Representative: Michael W. Tryon
Your U.S. Representatives • These people have offices in Illinois but represent us in Washington D.C.: a. 16th District U.S. Representative: Don Manzullo b. Illinois State Senators: Dick Durbin and Mark Kirk. STOP HERE. STUDY FOR QUIZ #3.