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  1. Nuclear Data Development Related to Th‐U Fuel Cycle in India S. Ganesan RAJA RAMANNA FELLOW of the DAE, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai & Professor, Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai & Scientific Consultant (Hon) to the Office of the PSA, GOI, DelhiReactor Physics Design Division Reactor design and development Group Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay Mumbai 400085 Email: & The 4th International Thorium Energy Conference, ThEC13, at CERN, in Geneva Switzerland, October 27 to 31, 2013.

  2. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Jean-Pierre REVOL for inviting me to deliver a talk in ThEC13. & to BARC/DAE authorities for enabling my participation in ThEC13.

  3. Discussed already by P. K. Vijayan, Session 2, This ThEC13 Conference. Also P.K. Wattal, ThEC13

  4. and various links therein. • • •

  5. Indian Situation The currently envisaged main new components, included in the Indian road map for Advanced Nuclear Power Systems, comprise the following (P.K. Vijayan, ThEC13):  • Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (and other thorium fuelled reactor systems (Ref. R.K. Sinha, A. Kakodkar, “Design and development of the AHWR—the Indian thorium fuelled innovative nuclear reactor,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume 236, Issues 7–8, April 2006, Pages 683-700). • Advanced fuel cycle (front end and back end) facilities (Wattal, ThEC13) • Compact High Temperature Reactor • Accelerator Driven Systems (Degwekar, ThEC13) • A number of slides on the above Indian activities on thorium were shown by P.K. Vijayan in ThEC13 here and are not repeated here to save space. We will mainly focus on Indian nuclear data science activities for thorium fuel cycle.

  6. Nuclear power is a viable option for meeting energy needs in India • Indian approach involves a closed fuel cycle involving multiple fuels. • As multiple fuel cycles (e.g., U-Pu, Th-U), with the option of closing the fuel cycle are envisaged, the nuclear data requirements that are needed to develop the new systems with high burnup are demanding and include all the range of actinides and fission products for multiple fuels.

  7. Challenges in Basic Nuclear Data Physics for Indian Nuclear Industry

  8. Nuclear reactor is A PHYSICS MACHINE Physicists have a great role in designing the best nuclear reactor design; the best nuclear reactor design is yet to be made.

  9. The speaker believes that the best reactor design (Generation N) • not even remotely be accident prone during the entire fuel cycle • with minimum radioactive waste • with maximum tolerance of normal, and, • even remotely possible operator errors is yet to be made. Role of Multiphysics Multiscale Modeling MMM3 with “big” data science.

  10. AN EXAMPLE TO ILLUSTRATE THAT NEW CONCEPTS (e.g., such as energy amplifier) need new data S. Ganesan, “Nuclear Data Requirements for Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Systems - A Roadmap in the Indian Context,” Indian Journal: PRAMANA, Vol. 68, No. 2, pp. 257-268 (Feb. 2007). The basic nuclear data physics research has been essential in shaping concepts of Energy Amplifier designs by Prof. Carlo Rubbia. Scientific foundation is on a better scientific basis with better physics data.

  11. Indian Context: Importance of nuclear data was recognized in 2004. Many ND activities started as DAE declared nuclear data as a thrust area. Nuclear Data Centre was formed in 2009

  12. Nuclear Data Physics Centre of India (NDPCI) has been formed. NDPCI has projects / collaborations with universities across India.

  13. Activities of Nuclear Data Physics Centre of India include the following: • Measurement of neutron and charged particle induced cross-section (Th-U fuel cycle, ADSS, AHWR, shielding, fast reactors and other programmes of DAE, also medical isotopes production  • Compilation and evaluation of nuclear reaction and nuclear structure; EXFOR Compilations. ENSDF related compilations. • DAE-BRNS sponsored NDPCI theme meetings and national conferences on topics in nuclear data physics • Advanced reactor applications to enable use of updated nuclear data libraries in plug-in format such as for discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo codes • Coordination on nuclear data physics involving IAEA NDS and be a single window from India to IAEA NDS. • International collaborations with CERN n_TOF under BARC MOU, Korea, IAEA CRPs • Identification of faculty & support for formation of useful local neutron data centres in universities and institutes.

  14. India is making rapid advances in nuclear data science since 2004. We need to do a lot more. The world has taken note of the base technology activities of India in nuclear data science that includes nuclear data for thorium fuel cycle. India has formed a Nuclear Data Physics Centre of India, a virtual centre. Efforts are on to make a physical centre for the NDPCI. Indian EXFOR compilation workshops in nuclear data compilations have become a role model. India is a member of NRDC club (International Nuclear reaction data Compilation network) since Sep. 2008. India has made more than 220 EXFOR entries as accepted by the IAEA India has initiated base technology efforts to start Indian evaluations of data India is making efforts in interfacing ENDF/B nuclear data files to Indian Monte Carlo codes (equivalent to MCNP standards). Long term project. India is a contributor to the ICSBEP Benchmarks NEA-DB/US-DOE. KAMINI, PURNIMA-II and PURNIMA-I. India is making progress in digesting methodolgy of covariances in nuclear data

  15. Examples of Nuclear Data Science Workshops in India (2012-2013) aimed at Indian interests such as thorium utilization. Workshop on Covariances in Nuclear Data, 16-19 December 2013, Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai), Maharashtra State Workshop on Surrogate Reactions and Its Applications, 24-25 January 2013, M.S. Univ. of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat State Workshop on Evaluation of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (30 Sept - 19 Oct 2012), Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre Kolkata, West Bengal State

  16. Nuclear data needs for thorium fuel cycle in Indian context. Generic issues • India’s programme of nuclear data science includes five base technologies: • Nuclear data physics experiments; Cross section measurements, covariances • Measured raw data compilations. Covariances; Digitization • Cross-section evaluations includes nuclear models, statistical tools • Cross section processing • Integral experiments (How to reduce the number of integral expts?) • Neutron-photon coupled transport calculations and response functions. (reactor Design with plug-in nuclear libraries). Use of covariances to define error margins due to uncertainties in nuclear data • The process of getting the working libraries for design calculations requires an iterative sequence of events to yield a quality assured transport cross section library. • Steps 1 to 5 involve doing science with efforts of magnitude 3 orders or more and lead time of years, than reactor design work that starts from plug-in nuclear data libraries.

  17. Indian Context: NDPCI OPERATES IN VIRTUAL MODE AT THIS TIME. Indian nuclear data activities in the past generically encompassed historically the user oriented approach starting from the basic evaluated nuclear data files distributed by the IAEA.India is now graduating to be a contributor to nuclear data generation.

  18. IAEA-TECDOC-336 (1985) India’s first ENDF/B file INDL Project by Hans Lemmel, IAEA

  19. Mirror of IAEA Nuclear Data Services in India IAEA NDS MIRROR SITE SET-UP 2Mbps link INTERNET NDS primary server (in Vienna) NDS mirror server (in India) Public client Under this arrangement, online-updating every 12 hours is performed in the mirror with the IAEA website through a 2MB direct link. The server is being maintained by BARC Computer Division - with manpower and machinery. It offers faster downloads. The online nuclear data services mirror the nuclear data website of the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna.

  20. the Mirror website in BARC that mirrors the IAEA website http://

  21. WIMS Library Update Project IAEA Coordinated Research Project . 1998-2002. The WIMS-D/4 code is a freely available thermal reactor physics lattice cell code that is widely used in many laboratories for thermal research reactor and power reactor calculations. It should be noted that the WIMS library associated with the WIMS-D/4 package is the 1981 -69 group library generated in the United Kingdom using evaluated nuclear data from the early 1960s.

  22. For U-235, for instance, we produce here on the left a plot of “eta” using the XnWLUP software . Below the the ratio is plotted as [Eta of ENDF/B-VII.0 / 1981 data )-1.00] in percent. The values of eta correspond to the infinite dilution cross sections, comparing the 1981 set with ENDF/B-VII.0 based 69 group multigroup cross sections. From physics point of view “eta” represents the net number of neutrons released per neutron absorbed and the effective “eta” over the neutron spectrum is essentially the infinite medium ultiplication factor, K-inf. The target accuracy in K-inf is 1mk and this gives the needed target accuracy for “eta” parameter as 0.1%. We see that the 1981 set and the ENDF/B-VII.0 data set differ by about -11% to 25% in some energy groups. Around the energy of 0.025 eV, the 2006 data is 0.5% larger than the 1981. This is the situation even with the main fissile material that is well investigated. 1981 data of eta for 235U compared with IAEA WLUP values

  23. India participated in and benefitted from the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on “Evaluated Data for the Thorium-Uranium Fuel Cycle,” 2003-2006.

  24. Measurements, Covariance error matrix specification BARC-TIFR Pelletron Machine, Mumbai

  25. European Physical Journal A 48, 35 (2012), Team lead by H. Naik P. M. Prajapati, H. Naik, S. V. Suryanarayana, S. Mukherjee, K. C. Jagadeesan,S. C. Sharma, S. V. Thakre, K. K. Rasheed, S. Ganesan and A. Goswami, “Measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of 232Th at 5.9 MeV and 15.5 MeV”

  26. This paper & the value of 234Pa(n,f) (the only experiment thus far) is quoted in 2012/2013 Karlsruhe International wall chart.

  27. Indian experimental data 232Th(n,2n) 231Th. Available in the IAEA EXFOR database

  28. Indian measurements of 232Th(n,g) 231Th are in the 0.5 to 15 MeV energy range using 7Li(p,n) reactions

  29. Indian measurements of nuclear data Surrogate nuclear reaction approach in India is discussed as an interesting example in the next few slides.

  30. Data from Surrogate Approach at BARC-TIFR Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research 14 MV Pelletron • 233Pa(n,f)/235U(n,f) by 232Th(7Li,α)234Pa*(fis) / 232Th(7Li,d)236U*(fis) 233Pa: 26.975 days B.K. Nayak et al., PRC 78 (2008) 061602 (EXFOR 33023) • 239Np(n,f)/241Pu(n,f) by 238U(6Li,α)240Np*(fis)/238U(6Li,d)242Pu*(fis) 239Np: 2.356 days 240Np(n,f)/241Pu(n,f) by 238U(7Li,α)240Np*(fis)/238U(7Li,t)242Pu*(fis) 240Np: 61.9 mins V.V. Desai et al., PRC 88(2013)014613 (to be in EXFOR) 235U(n,f) and 241Pu(n,f) are used as reference cross sections (well determined by direct method). • 241Pu(n,f)/235U(n,f) by 240Pu: 14.325 years238U(6Li,d)242Pu*(fis)/232Th(6Li,d)236U*(fis) Both 241Pu(n,f) and 235U(n,f) are well determined by direction method. → Benchmark of the surrogate approach. V.V. Desai et al., PRC 87(2013)034604 (to be in EXFOR)

  31. You do not have neutron beam. You do not have a target of an unstable nuclei. How do you get the cross section data for interaction of neutrons with unstable target nuclide?  Use of surrogate nuclear reactions. EXCITING SURROGATE TECHNIQUE The 2 day national NDPCI workshop at Vadodara, 24-25 January 2013 discussed this technique.

  32. Surrogate Reaction Approach for 233Pa(n,f) 233Pa (22 min) 234Pa* fission + Reaction of interest n 234Pa* fission 232Th Surrogate reaction 6Li + + α Determination of 233Pa (T1/2~27 days) fission cross sections

  33. Surrogate Reaction Approach for 233Pa(n,f) 234Pa* Surrogate reaction fission 232Th 6Li + + α Nα = # of 234Pa compound formation = # of α detection Nα-f= # of 234Pa compound fission = # of α and fission fragments detection (coincidence) → r = Nα-f / Nα = Γf (234Pa*)/Γtot(234Pa*) - branching ratio of 234Pa* to fission σ[233Pa(n,f)] = compound formation cross section σcn[233Pa+n] ×r Compound formation cross section: determined by optical model r: experimentally determined. A review paper on Surrogate approach: See, for instance, J.E. Escher et al., Reviews of Modern Physics, 84(2012)353.

  34. EXCITING SURROGATE TECHNIQUE EXFOR Entry completed EXFOR Entry nos:33023 and D6075 (CORRECTED FOR 2 INADVERTENT ERRORS IN THE PAPER). See Figure on the left, Thanks, N. Otsuka. 232Th(6Li, a)234Pa 232Th(6Li, d)236U Data in EXFOR database after correction

  35. 239Np: 2.356 days 240Np: 61.9 mins

  36. 234Pa(n,f) (to be published) T1/2 of 234Pa is ~6.7 hr. No 234Pa(n,f) cross section in EXFOR except for one for the thermal neutrons by 233Pa(2n,f) method at APSARA reactor (BARC) with fission track (H. Naik et al.,Eur. Phys. J. 47(2011)100; EXFOR 33036.) To be published. See the abstract submitted by V.V. Desai, B.K. Nayak, A. Saxena 232Th(7Li,α)235Pa*(fis) / 232Th(7Li,t)236U*(fis) was used.

  37. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 88, 014613 (2013)

  38. Compilation of raw experimental nuclear physics data is a challenge EXFOR WORKSHOPS IN INDIA HAVE EVOLVED AS A NEW & UNIQUE MANGERIAL INITIAVE AND HAVE BEEN PHENOMENALLY SUCCESSFUL. Introduction of EXFOR culture in people including in basic nuclear physics has become relatively an easier task with the new managerial initiatives of holding EXFOR workshops in India. Through the EXFOR Workshops, the NDPCI has been phenomenally successful to bring people in various fields (e.g., Nuclear Physics, Reactor and Radiochemistry Divisions of BARC, IGCAR, VECC etc.) and students and staff from various Universities across India. A very unique activity. Both experimentalists, theoreticians were covered.

  39. Indian EXFOR Compilation Workshops 1. DAE-BARC theme meeting on EXFOR compilation of nuclear data”, Mumbai 4 to 8 September 2006. 2. DAE-BARC theme meeting on EXFOR compilation of nuclear data” , BARC, Mumbai, 29 September to 2 October 2007. 3. The 3rd DAE-BARC theme meeting on EXFOR compilation of nuclear data”, Jaipur University, Jaipur, 3 to 7 November 2009. 4. The 4th DAE-BARC theme meeting on EXFOR compilation of nuclear data”, Punjab University, Chandigarh, 4 to 8 April 2011. 5. The 5th DAE-BARC theme meeting on EXFOR compilation of nuclear data”, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 18 to 22 February 2013 6. 2014 EXFOR workshop, in Banglaore(Proposal)

  40. International Network ofNuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) NNDC NEA-DB IAEA-NDS CJD, CAJaD, CDFE, CNPD ATOMKI CNDC JCPRG, JAEA KAERI UkrNDC BARC NDPCI is responsible for all EXFOR compilations in India. BARC was invited and joined as a full member of NRDC in September 2008.

  41. Number of Indian Nuclear data Physics Experiments Compiled by India # of all experiments by all countries in EXFOR (/10) # of experiments compiled by India 1st workshop (2006) in BARC More than 200 Indian experimental works have been compiled by the Indian group since 2006 and accepted by the IAEA.

  42. The safety and operational requirements of existing power plants have been engineered with a number of one-to-one mockup experiments providing adequate and conservative safety margins. • Basic physics understanding and better data physics of nuclear interactions are continuing to be rigorously sought by nuclear design communities in order to extrapolate to states of the power plant in conditions not covered in one-to-one mock experiments.

  43. An Interesting Example of an Indian Operating PHWR Influenced by Need To Use Update Nuclear Data in Design Manuals

  44. BETTER NUCLEAR DATA For safe operation of existing reactors: A practical example In 2004, an incident involving power rise took place in KAPS, Unit 1. Nat- UO2, D2O, PHWR 220 MWe unit. A public release dated April 22, 2004 by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board provides the details of this incident.

  45. On March 10, 2004, KAPS-1 experienced an incident involving incapacitation of reactor regulating system, leading to an unintended rise in reactor powerfrom 73%FP to near 100%FP, with trip occuring on Steam Generator DELTA T High Level 2 on INES Scale.

  46. The FTC is due to the combined effect of Doppler effect and fuel re-thermalization effect. In a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, the precise cross-over point in burnup where the FTC becomes positive depends on many parameters such as the temperature range and 19 versus 37 rod cluster. The 27 group wims1981 library has a cross over point, for FTC at about 12000MWD/Te burnup; at about 9400MWD with the same but 69-group library, at about 6000MWD for a 19 rod cluster with the new “iaea.lib” library and at about 4500MWD for 37 rod cluster of PHWR with the “iaea.lib” library. The KAPS-1 overpower transient could be explained only with the use of new WLUP libraries. A practical exampleAn incident involving power rise took place in KAPS, Unit 1. Nat- UO2, D2O, PHWR 220 MWe unit. A public release dated April 22, 2004 by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board provides the details of this incident. On March 10, 2004, KAPS-1 experienced an incident involving incapacitation of reactor regulating system, leading to an unintended rise in reactor powerfrom 73%FP to near 100%FP, with trip occurring on Steam Generator DELTA T High Level 2 on INES Scale.