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Each group had a leader and they worked in shifts, as they did before the accident on 5 August. PowerPoint Presentation
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Each group had a leader and they worked in shifts, as they did before the accident on 5 August.

Each group had a leader and they worked in shifts, as they did before the accident on 5 August.

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Each group had a leader and they worked in shifts, as they did before the accident on 5 August.

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  1. The rescue operation, in a remote region of the Atacama Desert, was witnessed by hundred’s of journalists

  2. Florencio Avalos (31), Mario Sepulveda (39), Juan Illanes (51), Carlos Mamani (23), Jimmy Sanchez (19), Osman Araya (30), Jose Ojeda (46), Claudio Yanez (34), Mario Gomez (63), Alex Vega (31), Jorge Galleguillos (56), Edison Pena (34), Carlos Barrios (27), Victor Zamora (33), Victor Segovia (48), Daniel Herrera (27), Omar Reygadas (56), Esteban Rojas (44), Pablo Rojas (45), Dario Segovia (48), Yonni Barrios (50), Samuel Avalos (43), Carlos Bugueno (27), Jose Henriquez (54), Renan Avalos (29), Claudio Acuna, (35), Franklin Lobos (53), Richard Villarroel (27), Juan Aguilar (49), Raul Bustos (40), Pedro Cortez (24), Ariel Ticona (29), Luis Urzua (54)

  3. The 33 miners - all Chileans except one miner from Bolivia - have a range of ages, experience and health conditions. • The men's health on the day of the rescue has been one of the key considerations for rescuers. First, they wanted the fittest with the most technical know-how, then the weakest, to be followed by the strongest characters who could cope with watching their colleagues leave the mine first. • Florencio Avalos was brought out first. Jimmy Sanchez, who had been showing signs of anxiety, was brought out fifth. He was the youngest miner at 19 and the father of a four-month-old baby. • The oldest of the group is Mario Gomez, 64, who has worked in the mines since the age of 12 and was thinking of retiring in November. He was the ninth to be brought out. • During their time underground, the miners split into three groups - Grupo Refugio, Grupo Rampa and Grupo 105, or the Refuge group, Ramp group and Group 105 - named after the shelter, the ramp and Level 105 sections of the 1km tunnel where they are trapped.

  4. Each group had a leader and they worked in shifts, as they did before the accident on 5 August. • Meals were delivered by the supply bore holes in packages called "palomas" or doves. • The "palomas" have also carried medication, technical supplies, camp bed parts and messages to and from loved ones waiting on the surface

  5. The accident • Thirty-three miners were trapped underground when part of the San Jose mine in Chile's Atacama desert collapsed on 5 August 2010. • A second collapse on 7 August hampered rescue efforts, blocking access to the lower parts of the mine. • The San Jose mine, 800km (500 miles) north of Santiago, is mined for copper and gold. The main path - or rampa - reaches down to 720m (2,362ft) below the surface. • The collapses, blocking exit routes, had taken place between 400m (1,312ft) and 500m (1,640ft). • Rescue teams drilled a number of exploratory boreholes, sending listening probes down knowing that, despite the collapse of some ventilation shafts, the miners may have survived.

  6. DISCOVERY • Seventeen days after the accident, rescuers found a note from the miners attached to one of the probes saying "Estamos bien en el refugio los 33" - "All 33 of us are well inside the shelter." • The note referred to a refuge shelter, 700m (2,300ft) down, where the miners had been having lunch when the first collapse happened. • Emergency supplies and fresh water were sent down the borehole to the miners after they had survived on rations for 17 days. • Communications were set up and the miners told the rescue team they had access to about 1km (0.6 miles) of tunnel and had split into three groups to eat and sleep. • Since then, rescuers have sent food and medical supplies, specialist clothing, camp beds and other equipment down the borehole to make the miners' lives more comfortable.

  7. DRILLING BEGINS • With access via the mine tunnels blocked, rescuers decided the best way of reaching the men was to drill a shaft and winch them to the surface. • Three types of drilling equipment were used - two raise-bore machines, which drill a pilot hole before widening the shaft. And a third drill, normally used in the oil industry, which drills a wide shaft at the first instance. • The pilot hole for the first shaft, Plan A, started on 30 August - aiming for the shelter. Plan B, involving faster machinery, was aiming for a machine workshop a few hundred metres from the refuge and completed its pilot hole on 17 September. • Rescuers dug all three holes at the same time to be sure of getting the miners out as fast as possible, even if one of the pieces of equipment broke.

  8. LIFE UNDERGROUND • Communication with the miners has been key to morale and the rescue operation itself. Messages from relatives and supplies have been passed down the boreholes in special tubes nicknamed "palomas" or "doves". • But the miners have also been able to provide rescuers with video updates of conditions in the mine. • The 33 men have split into three groups - Grupo Refugio, Grupo Rampa and Grupo 105 - named after the shelter, the ramp and Level 105 sections of the tunnel where they are trapped. • They have established shift patterns - work tasks involve clearing the debris falling from the pilot hole as the shaft is widened and unloading the dozens of palomas sent down each day. • Rest periods are used for sleeping, writing letters and games - the miners also need to keep fit and slim enough to fit in the rescue capsule.

  9. LIFE AT THE SURFACE • Relatives and friends of the 33 miners have gathered at the mine since the accident in an area dubbed Campo Esperanza, or Camp Hope. • Families have been living in tents, with daily meals provided by charities and local authorities. • They also send messages and creature comforts down to the miners, and await their replies, sent back up in the paloma supply tubes. • A school has been set up for the children of the trapped miners living at the camp - following a request from the miners.

  10. BREAKTHROUGH • Amid scenes of jubilation above and below ground, the Plan B drill finally broke through to the miners' workshop on 9 October. • After a video inspection of the shaft to check the rock's stability, rescuers decided they only needed to encase the first 96m (315 ft). • Sixteen six-metre tubes were welded together to go into the shaft. This will prevent rocks in the looser soil near the top of the shaft being dislodged and jamming the rescue capsule. • A winch and pulley for the rescue capsules will then be installed and the shaft tested before the rescue begins, it is hoped, on Wednesday.

  11. RESCUE • After unmanned test runs and checks on the Phoenix capsule, the rescue operation began shortly after 2315 on Tuesday (0215 GMT on Wednesday 13 October) with Manuel Gonzalez being lowered down the shaft. • Mr Gonzalez was supposed to return to the surface and report on the condition of the rescue shaft, before handing over to a paramedic. However, the miner Florencio Avalos instead got into the capsule and was hauled up. • The miners wore a "bio-harness" designed for astronauts - which monitors their heart rate, breathing, temperature and oxygen consumption - and sunglasses to protect their eyes from the glare of the desert. • Mr Avalos reached the surface at 0010 on Wednesday (0310 GMT) and was greeted by his family, rescuers, President Pinera and the first lady, Cecilia Morel. • The rescue team was soon able to cut the time down between each ascent from an hour to 25 minutes, and by Wednesday afternoon it became clear that the operation would be completed in half the time originally estimated. • President Pinera was also waiting at the head of the rescue shaft at 2155 on Wednesday (0055 GMT on Thursday), when the capsule carrying Luis Urzua reached the surface. • Before the remaining six rescuers started their return journey to the surface, they held up a banner saying "Mission accomplished."

  12. The rescue operation, in a remote region of the Atacama Desert, was witnessed by hundred’s of journalists

  13. Rise of the phoenix • The capsule, dubbed "Phoenix" after the mythical bird that rose from the ashes, carried the men nearly half a mile through solid rock in a shaft just wider than a man's shoulders as their two-month ordeal came to an end. • The miners were kitted out with special lightweight, made-to-measure waterproof clothing for the rescue. They also wore a heart rate monitor which measured their vital signs as they were lifted to the surface. • They wore a small oxygen mask and headphones and a microphone allowed them to be in constant contact with the surface. Elastic bandages around the lower legs were used to prevent blood circulation problems on the ascent. • Doctors had been worried about the miners' eyes after the months they have spent without any sunlight. Each man was given dark glasses to avoid damaging their eyesight. • If the capsule had got stuck, the men could have released a series of levers inside the capsule allowing it to be winched back to the bottom of the mine. • But in the end, the journeys up and down the shaft were without incident. Journey times also sped up as the rescue progressed - from about 20 minutes per ascent at the start, to about eight minutes towards the end.

  14. After more than two months underground, the 33 miners were brought to the surface one at a time in a specially-designed capsule. • Ascent: 622m • Temperature: 36°mine 8-18°surface • Time: 15-20 mins • Speed: 1m/s

  15. THE MINERS

  16. Florencio Avalos • Age: 31 Job: Driver • First miner to be rescued. He emerged from the capsule and hugged his seven-year-old son, his wife Monica then the Chilean president. Member of Grupo 105. He filmed videos to be sent up to rescuers. His brother Renan was also trapped.

  17. Mario Sepulveda Age: 40 Job: Electrical specialist Second miner to be rescued. He was heard shouting to his wife Elvira from inside the shaft. He told rescuers: "I was with God and with the devil - and God took me." He added that he wanted to be treated as a miner, not as a celebrity. Mr Sepulveda had become a familiar personality on the miners' videos.

  18. Uan Illanes Age: 52 Job: Miner Third miner to be rescued. Asked how his trip in the rescue capsule was, he replied: "Like a cruise!" Member of Grupo 105. Former corporal in Beagle border conflict between Chile and Argentina

  19. Carlos Mamani Age: 24 Job: Heavy machinery operator Fourth miner to be rescued. Only Bolivian in the group, had been working in the mine only five days before accident. His father-in-law told reporters that Mr Manami had been shocked and traumatised by what had happened and would not work in a mine again.

  20. Jimmy Sanchez Age: 19 Job: Miner Fifth miner to be rescued. He is the youngest of the 33 miners and had only worked as a miner for five months before the accident. Member of Grupo Rampa. He had role of checking the temperature and humidity in the mine.

  21. Osman Araya Age: 30 Job: Miner Sixth miner to be rescued. Hugged his wife Angelica as he left the capsule. He said: "Thankyou all to you have been helping us in this ordeal in the past few days." In one message from the mine, he said: "I will fight to the end to be with you." His role was one of palomeros for Grupo 105.

  22. Jose Ojeda Age: 48 Job: Master driller Seventh miner to be rescued. He was greeted by his stepdaughter. Mr Ojeda received medication for diabetes while trapped. He wrote the message that alerted rescuers: "Estamos bien en el refugio los 33 - All 33 of us are safe in the shelter."

  23. Claudio Yanez Age: 34 Job: Drill operator Eighth miner to be rescued. His long term partner, Cristina Nunez, proposed to him in a letter sent down to the miners. He says they'll get married as soon as he is out. The couple have two daughters.

  24. Mario Gomez • Age: 64 Job: Miner • Ninth miner to be brought out. He knelt in prayer and quietly said: "I have come back to life." Later, he said: "Sometimes you need something to happen in your life to really reflect and understand that we only have one life. I changed, I am a different person." He is the oldest of the group and has worked in mines since he was 12.

  25. Alex Vega Salazar Age: 31 Job: Heavy machinery mechanic Tenth miner to be rescued. He embraced his wife Jessica after leaving the capsule. She said her husband had been worried about his debts while trapped in the mine. "I have told him not to worry, that I have already cancelled them. I told him that I love him." El Pais reported her as saying.

  26. Jorge Galleguillos Age: 56 Job: Miner Eleventh miner to be rescued. He was on medication for hypertension and said in one video he had been feeling unwell.

  27. Edison Pena Age: 34 Job: Miner Twelfth miner to be rescued. A keen runner while he was down in the mine. He was a member of the Grupo Refugio. He had openly expressed his desperation in letters and videos to his girlfriend. In one he said: "I want to be free, I want to see the sun."

  28. Carlos Barrios Job: 27 Job: Miner Thirteenth miner to be rescued. Shift leader of Grupo Rampa. His mother Gricelda Godoy told La Tercera newspaper her son had said he did not want any more to do with the psychologist who has been working with the miners.

  29. Victor Zamora Age: 33 Job: Vehicle mechanic Fourteenth miner to be rescued. One of palomeros for Grupo Rampa. Not normally in the mine but went inside on day of accident to repair a vehicle. He joked to his mother that he was happy in the hole because there was no-one to tell him to have a wash.

  30. Victor Segovia Age: 48 Job: Electrician Fifteenth miner to be rescued. Member of Grupo Rampa. He had role of giving daily report to rescuers. In letter to family said: "This hell is killing me. I try to be strong but when I sleep suddenly I dream we are in an oven and when I wake I find myself in this eternal darkness, that wears you down day by day."

  31. Daniel Herrera Age: 27 Job: Lorry driver Sixteenth miner to be rescued. Had role of paramedic's assistant while underground. In a letter to relatives he said the miners were unhappy with the psychologist, La Tercera reports: "Don't ask me any more about how I am feeling, because in the letter that I read... it felt like you were advising me via this 'doc'."

  32. Omar Reygadas Age: 56 Job: Bulldozer operator Seventeenth miner to be rescued. After leaving the capsule, he knelt on the ground clutching a bible. "He wants to have a meal of heart of veal with avocado and watch a lot of television," his family has told BBC Mundo. He was leader of the Grupo Refugio.

  33. Esteban Rojas Age: 44 Job: In charge of maintenance Eighteenth miner to be rescued. He had told his girlfriend of 25 years: "When I get out of here we'll buy you a wedding dress and get married in church."

  34. Pablo Rojas Age: 45 Job: Miner Nineteenth miner to be rescued. One of the palomeros for Grupo Refugio. He has worked in the mine for six months.

  35. Dario Segovia Age: 48 Job: Drill Operator Twentieth miner to be rescued. Dario's sister, Maria, has been dubbed La Alcaldesa - the Mayoress - for the leading role she has taken at Camp Hope. His elderly father, Dario Snr started taking his son down the mine when he was eight.

  36. Yonni Barrios Age: 50 Job: The "Doctor" Twenty-first miner to be rescued. Member of Grupo Rampa. Knowledge of first aid from helping diabetic mother as a child means he was given responsibility for monitoring health of colleagues. In his letter to his wife he said he felt like he was in hell in first days after cave-in.

  37. Samuel Avalos Age: 43 Job: Miner Twenty-second miner to be rescued. Member of Grupo Rampa. He had role of checking air quality in the area where the miners were living. He had worked in the mine for five months.

  38. Carlos Bugueno Job: 27 Job: Miner Twenty-third miner to be rescued. He was one of the palomeros in his group - the miners taking it in turns to look after sending and receiving packages nicknamed "palomas" or "doves" sent via the supply pipes. He is a childhood friend of fellow trapped miner Pedro Cortez, who joined mine at same time.

  39. Jose Henriquez Age: 56 Job: Drill Master Twenty fourth miner to reach the surface. Member of Grupo 105. He is an evangelical preacher and had the role of keeping spirits up. He has worked in mines for 33 years.

  40. Renan Avalos Age: 29 Job: Miner Twenty fifth miner to be rescued. He was one of the palomeros for Grupo 105. Four months ago decided to come to work in the San Jose mine with his brother Florencio Avalos Silva - who was also trapped.

  41. Claudio Acuna Age: 35 Job: Miner Twenty sixth miner to reach the surface. He had been working in the mine for three days when the accident happened. He was one of the palomeros for Grupo Rampa. His wife sent him a signed t-shirt from his favourite football team Colo Colo for his birthday.

  42. Franklin Lobos Age: 52 Job: Driver Twenty seventh miner to be rescued. Member of Grupo Refugio. He is a former footballer in a local league. He received one of two signed t-shirts sent to the mine by Barcelona player David Villa, whose father and grandfather were miners.

  43. Richard Villarroel Age: 26 Job: Mechanic Twenty eighth miner to be rescued. He has worked in San Jose mine for two years. He is due to become a father in November.