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Political Parties, interest Groups, and mass media

Political Parties, interest Groups, and mass media

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Political Parties, interest Groups, and mass media

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  1. Political Parties, interest Groups, and mass media Chapters 16, 18, and 19 11/21-22/13

  2. Party Systems • One-Party System • No opposition • Authoritarian governments • Communists • Religious leaders • Theocracy • Multiparty Systems • France = 5 • Italy = 10 • Wide range on choices on election day • One party rarely gets enough support to control all aspects of the government • Coalition government

  3. Minor Parties • Even if there are 7 other parties running against the two major parties, they are still referred to as a third party • Believe neither party is meeting certain needs • 1. Single-issue party • Focuses on one major social, economic, or moral issue • Short lived • 2. Ideological party • Focuses on overall change rather than on an issue • EX. Socialist party, Libertarian Party • 3. Splinter Party • Split away from another group • Ex. Teddy Roosevelt splitting the Republican Party to form the Progressive

  4. Impact of third parties • Draw support away from one of the two major parties • Ex. T. Roosevelt’s Progressive Party split Republican support and Democratic Woodrow Wilson was elected • Third parties often promote ideas that are at first unpopular • Picked up by major parties later on

  5. Party Organization • 50 state parties • Thousands of local parties that nominate independently of the national organization • Separate authority exists for each level • Party membership • You declare a party when you register to vote • May pick independent • No duties or obligations • Can contribute money • Volunteer work • Usually as requirement to run for office

  6. Party Organization National Committee State Committee Congressional and state legislative districts committees County Committees Rural and Urban Committees Precincts -Not a hierarchy -Separation of powers and authority

  7. Political Party Functions • 1. Recruit Candidates • 2. Educate the public • Each side published their opinion on issues • Simplify voting for the voters • 3.Operate the government • 4.Dispense patronage • 5. Loyal opposition • “watchdog” • 6. Reduce conflict • Compromise • Non-violent transfer of power

  8. Nominating Candidates • Four ways • 1. Caucuses • Private meetings of party leaders • Chose nearly all of potential candidates • Democratic? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cnh-136QqO8 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f9-82zDcqkM • 2. Nominating Conventions • Official public meeting of a party to choose candidates • More democratic than caucuses • Bosses

  9. Nominating Candidates • 3. Primary Elections • Direct primary • An election in which party members select people to run in the general election • Closed primaries • Only vote for your political party • Open primary • All voters may participate • 4. Petitions • Some states require all candidates to file a petition

  10. Interest Groups • Group of people who share common goals • Organize to influence government • Factions • Sole job is to influence government officials to support certain policies • Help bridge the gap between political parties and the citizens • “strength in numbers”

  11. Types of Interest Groups • Business related groups • Labor related groups • Agricultural groups • Environmental groups • Professional Associations

  12. Lobbying • Lobbying = influencing government policies through direct contact with lawmakers and government officials • Lobbyist = representatives from interest groups • Provide useful information • Drafting bills

  13. Mass Media • “the fourth branch” • Two types • Print Media • Electronic Media • President and the media • Mutual relationship • Best way to get ideas out for the President • Biggest story for the media • News release • Prepared story • News briefing • Announcement • Press secretary

  14. Media influence • Presidential Campaigns • Identifying candidates • Nominating process • Campaign advertising • Weakened political parties • Congress • Press secretaries for each Congressman • Confirmation hearings • Dig up background information on appointees • Oversight activities • People get to watch hearings • Publicize problems going in government • Personal Business

  15. Setting public opinion • Highlight issues and ignore others • Decide which issues will be discussed and which will be silenced • Pick which issues become important • Direct how people view certain situations • Direct people's attitudes • They focus on bad news, scandals, violence, and power struggles • People no longer trust government officials

  16. Regulating the media • Regulate broadcast media more so than print • Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • 5 commissioners that the president appoints • Serve 5 year terms • Grant licenses to all radio and television stations • Can’t censor but can fine • Equal airtime doctrine • Give all candidates equal airtime