Download
post op assessment including post op analgesia n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
POST OP ASSESSMENT INCLUDING POST OP ANALGESIA PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
POST OP ASSESSMENT INCLUDING POST OP ANALGESIA

POST OP ASSESSMENT INCLUDING POST OP ANALGESIA

322 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

POST OP ASSESSMENT INCLUDING POST OP ANALGESIA

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. POST OP ASSESSMENTINCLUDING POST OP ANALGESIA Ernest Lekgabe HMO Royal Melbourne Hospital

  2. Objectives • Immediately post op patients must be seen as unstable and must always be assessed systematically • Recognise the critically ill who must undergo simultaneous examination and resuscitation when first seen

  3. Immediate Management ABCDE Full patient assessment Chart review History and examination Available results Decide and plan Stable patient Unstable/unsure Daily management plan Diagnosis required Definitive Care Medical surgical Radiological

  4. Immediate Management ABCDE Full patient assessment Chart review History and examination Available results Decide and plan Stable patient Unstable/unsure Daily management plan Diagnosis required Definitive Care Medical surgical Radiological

  5. Immediate management Airway • Look, Listen and feel • Look for presence of central cyanosis, use of accessory muscles of respiration, tracheal tug, ACS, foreign bodies • Listen for abnormal sounds e.g. grunting, snoring, gurgling, stridor • Feel for airflow on inspiration and expiration Breathing • Look, Listen and feel • Look for central cyanosis, signs of respiratory distress • Feel for position of trachea, equality of chest expansion, percussion • Auscultate for abnormal breadth sounds, heart sounds and rhythm Circulation • Circulatory dysfunction in a surgical pt is due to hypovoleamia until proved otherwise, therefore haemorrhage must excluded. • Look for reduced perfusion (pallor, coolness, collapsed or underfilled veins – BP may be normal in a shocked pt) • Feel for pulses – assess for rate, quality, regularity and equality Dysfunction of the CNS • Assess pupils and use the AVPU system or GCS • Remember ACS may be due to others causes other than primary brain injury e.g. hypoxia and/or hypercapnia, decreased CPP due to shock. Exclude Hyploglycaemia. Exposure • Allows for better assessment and access to patient for therapeutic manoeuvres but beware of pt getting cold and maintain dignity of the patient

  6. Grades of hypovolaemic shock • Grade 1 (15% BV, 750ml) • Mildtachycardia • Grade 2 (15-30% BV, 750-1500ml) • Mod tachycardia, pulse pressure, cap return • Grade 3 (30-40% BV, 1500-2000ml) • BP, HR, U/O • Grade 4 (40-50% BV, 2000-2500ml) • Above plus profound hypotension

  7. Question • You visit Mr AB on the ward after his operation. You find that he is slightly drowsy, tachycardic and is cool peripherally. • What is your immediate assessment and management.

  8. Immediate Management ABCDE Full patient assessment Chart review History and examination Available results Decide and plan Stable patient Unstable/unsure Daily management plan Diagnosis required Definitive Care Medical surgical Radiological

  9. Full patient assessment Inspection of charts • Respiratory (RR, FiO2, SpO2), Circulation (HR, BP, UO, CVP, fluid balance), Surgical (temperature, drainage) • Check the drug chart to see what drugs have been given and which of the pt’s usual drugs might have been forgotten. History and examination • Comorbidities • Full physical examination Review of Results • Biochemistry (U&Es, ABGs, BSLs) • Haematology (FBE, clotting) • Microbiology • Radiology

  10. Immediate Management ABCDE Full patient assessment Chart review History and examination Available results Decide and plan Stable patient Unstable/unsure Daily management plan Diagnosis required Definitive Care Medical surgical Radiological

  11. Decide and plan • Decide wether patient is stable or unstable • If not sure manage as unstable

  12. Immediate Management ABCDE Full patient assessment Chart review History and examination Available results Decide and plan Stable patient Unstable/unsure Daily management plan Diagnosis required Definitive Care Medical surgical Radiological

  13. Stable patient – Daily plan Stable patients have normal signs and are progressing as expected. Most patients seen on the ward round are stable Daily plan • Fluid balance • Drugs and Analgesia – antibiotics, DVT prophylaxis • Nutrition – route, how much • Removal of drains/tubes • Investigations (bloods, X-rays, referrals) • Physiotherapy

  14. Immediate Management ABCDE Full patient assessment Chart review History and examination Available results Decide and plan Stable patient Unstable/unsure Daily management plan Diagnosis required Definitive Care Medical surgical Radiological

  15. Unstable patient - Diagnosis required • Resuscitation • Investigations (bloods, CXR, ECG, cultures) • Consider if patient needs urgent surgery • Consider urgent specialist referrals, MET call • Consider transferring to HDU or ICU

  16. Post Op Analgesia • Analgesia relieves suffering • Inadequately controlled pain increases sympathetic outflow, leading to an increase HR, vasoconstriction and increased O2 demand, particularly in the myocardium and may contribute to MI. • Pain (from e.g. abdominal and thoracic procedures) may impair Respiratory function leading to atelectasis/Pneumonia • Good analgesia allows for rehabilitation

  17. Assessment of pain Airway • Loss of airway from over sedation esp. in the elderly, patients with OSA, post cranial surgery. Breathing • Assess depth of breathing, RR and ability to cough • Inadequate analgesia can lead to poor respiratory function and a poor cough effort. • This is a more common scenario than respiratory depression from opioid overdosage Circulation • Inadequate analgesia can cause persistent tachycardia or hypertension, this in turn contribute to MI esp. in a pt who is already hypoxaemic • Epidural analgesia may lead to hypotension (sympathetic blockade - vasodilatation) Disability • Opioid toxicity

  18. Pain scoring systems • Verbal rating scale Is your pain 0 – absent, 1- mild, 2 – discomforting, 3- distressing, 4 – excruciating • Numerical rating scale On a scale from 1 – 10 how do you rate your pain • Visual analogue scale No pain Worst imaginable • Functional assessment Can you sit up? Can you cough?

  19. Techniques available for Mx of Acute pain Epidural analgesia • Analgesic ladder - Single agent to epidural Paracetamol • Should be given regularly, oral, rectal or IV NSAIDs • Used as adjuncts, Increase efficacy and reduce opioid use • Can affect haemostasis and renal function, gastric ulceration Opioids • Gold standard in severe pain • Codeine (weak analgesis, contipating), • Tramadol (opoid-like, less respiratory depression effect, less tendency to produce dependence but marked emetic effect) • Oxycodone, oral, S/C or IV Morphine (bolus or infusion) • Side effects – Respiratory depression (reduce sensitivity of the respiratory centres in the brain stem), Sedation (may cause loss of airway), Nausea and vomiting (direct stimulation of CTZ in the medulla and by reduced gastric emptying) PCA Multimodal therapy Single-agent analgesia

  20. Techniques available for Mx of Acute pain PCA • self administered boluses of morphine with “patient lockout time”. Epidural • Most effective way of producing profound analgesia, blocks afferent pain pathways. • Lumbar or thoracic approach • Usually a combination of drugs e.g. a local anaesthetic like bupivacaine and an opioid like fentanyl. • Aim is to get good pain relief with minimal sympathetic effects and no motor block.