Please put purses and other materials under your desk Please turn phones off. Illinois History. Unit 6 Farming on Prairie Grangers and Greenbackers Rise of Mail Order Houses Packingtown USA Jane Addams. Farming On The Prairie. Subsistence Farming.
Please put purses and other materials under your desk Please turn phones off
Unit 6 Farming on Prairie Grangers and Greenbackers Rise of Mail Order Houses Packingtown USA Jane Addams
Farming On The Prairie
Subsistence Farming Farmers produced everything that they needed Used almost everything they produced Took little to market Hardly ever had money
Farmers made their own tools Repair their own oxen yokes, harnesses, wagons and harrows Planted seed by hand and harvested the crops by hand Used a medieval wooden type plow that was easily clogged and was not sturdy enough to break up the soil
Steel Plow Wood Plow
Inventions That Changed Farming John Deere invented a plow made of steel which did not clog and cut through the soil
Cyrus McCormick Invented a reaper that cut wheat Allowed farmers to double their crop
Seeders and cultivators were invented to sow the seed and cover it
The Railroad Comes to the Illinois Farmer The Illinois Central railroad was completed in the 1850’s, running the length of the state Previously the farmers could only get their products to market on flatboats that floated downstream the railroads brought easy transportation of farm products
RR’s encouraged people to move to Illinois, selling off land they received from federal land grants RR’s offered prizes for new farm machinery RR’s experimented with new crops RR’s encouraged farmers to grow fruit
Corporate Farming Corporate farming began in Illinois in the 1840’s and 1850’s Corporate farmers have thousands of acres They employ hundreds of men and have hundreds of machines to cultivate their great crop harvest
Average Farmers Most farmers farmed between 100 and 150 acres Made modest living
Grangers And Greenbackers
Farmer's Complaints After the War At the end of the war demand for farm products lessened. The result was overproduction and falling prices. This made it difficult to repay the loans they used to buy new machinery for the earlier demands.
Farmers complained that manufacturers received trade protections that farmers did not Railroads and grain elevators charged higher than necessary rates Farmers standard of living decreased while city dwellers standard increased
Grangers The Patrons of Husbandry was founded in 1867 Known as the Granges, began to agitate for railroad regulation Granges in Illinois were able to bring about change in state laws and affect election of public officials
The Grangers' goals: protective tariffs on imported goods regulation of the rates which railroads charged to ship goods to market regulation of storage rates at storage elevators
Munn Vs. Illinois The Illinois railroad and warehouse commission sued Munn & Scott, a grain elevator firm, for failing to secure a state license for their business. Munn & Scott denied the state had a right to license business.
Chief Justice Sidney Breeze wrote a landmark decision, which said that businesses, which affect the public, should be subject to government regulation. The decision was upheld in the Supreme Court.
Greenbackers During the Civil War the government issued $400,000,000 in paper money, nick-named "greenbacks." At the end of the war inflation had reduced their value to about half.
Farmers, were called "green backers," wanted to be able to pay off their debts with cheaper money Supported the issuing of more paper money which would cause inflation
Long-term Effect of Granger Laws Illustrated the discontent of farmers They provided a precedent for national railroad regulation
The Rise of the Great Mail Order Houses Montgomery Ward Richard Sears
Mail Order Emerges After the Civil War, the most of the people and wealth were in the rural areas Rural residents had few opportunities to go to the cities to buy consumer goods Mail order businesses emerged to offer free delivery and catalogs to rural customers
Montgomery Ward Founded business in 1872 Had lived w/ farmers; knew of their needs Bought directly from manufacturer and sold directly to farmers for cash Idea was to make small profits on great quantities of sales
1st catalog was 1 page; grew to 240 Factors that brought success Cash on delivery payment Was official supplier to the Grangers, who bought in bulk Offered guarantee of satisfaction, paid refund plus shipping
Richard Sears As a young man worked as a station manager for a railroad in Minnesota In 1886, a local jeweler refused a shipment of watches Sears asked the manufacturer for permission to sell the watches
He soon sold all of the watches to other station agents Within 6 months his watch selling business was so successful that he quit the railroad Moved to Minneapolis to start a watch business at age 22
In 1887 he hired Alvah Roebuck to handle the service department In 1893 he and Roebuck formed Sears, Roebuck and Co. and moved their offices to Chicago The Chicago location had better access to railroads
Sears knew farmers and their needs His 1st catalog was only watches By 1895, his catalog was 532 pages and contained many items farmers desired Clothing, plows, bicycles, shoes, etc
1897 Roebuck retires because of ill health 1908 began selling home kits by mail order, delivered by train
He retired later that year 1914 – died of Bright’s Disease
Hog Butcher for the World Civil War created a demand for source of meat for Union Army Chicago had the transportation facilities and was near cattle producing areas and the grain belt
Giant meatpackers Philip Armour began business in Chicago and became a household name within a few years In 1891, the company was the largest meat packer in the country and controlled 30 percent of Chicago's grain supply
Gustavus Swift Believed that slaughtering and dressing beef in Chicago would be better than transporting the animals live to the East Cattle shipped to the market whole cost the meatpackers the price of freight for live animals
The invention of the refrigerated train car allowed meatpackers to ship the carcasses to their destination in good condition To avoid waste, packers used by-products to in manufacture of other products “used everything but the squeal”
Criticisms Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, which shocked the nation depicting deplorable working conditions in the packinghouses The book inspired the government to begin inspecting the packing process Led to enactment of Pure Food and Drug Act
During the Spanish-American War, spoiled canned meat was blamed for thousands of deaths to soldiers Public uproar forced the meatpackers to clean up their operations and comply with federal inspections Chicago stockyards remained in business until 1970
Marshall Field Came to Chicago and worked a clerk, later named a general manager in a wholesale house Field and Levi Leiter bought into the store and built the business up during the Civil War Both left to join a retail business run by Potter Palmer
1871 – Chicago fire destroyed their store Rescued merchandise was moved to a barn on the south side of Chicago Reopened 2 days after the fire in the barn They rebuilt an even bigger store at the original location
Business grew rapidly after the fire To keep his stores supplied, Field bought or built his own factories Began importing exotic goods 1881- Field bought out Leiter When he died, he was the richest man in Chicago
Potter Palmer Chicago merchant who owned a dry goods store and made large profits After the Civil War he sold out store to Field an Leiter Turned to real estate business
Bought property along State St. , moved buildings back and persuaded city to pave the wide street Built a store which he rented to Field and Leiter for $50,000
Built an expensive hotel called the Palmer House 1871- fire almost ruins Palmer Went into debt to rebuild, borrowed $2 million to rebuild State St. and the Palmer House
After solvent, he bought swamp land along Lake Michigan Filled the swamp land and then built a row of fine stone houses Lake Shore Drive became the home of the wealthiest of Chicago society
Problems caused by industrialization Contrast of bustling prosperity and tremendous growth Wealth for some, and terrible poverty for the working class.
Jane Addams Born in rural Illinois Received college degree in 1881 Visited England and toured a settlement house When she returned the U.S., she opened up a settlement house in Chicago
The settlement house idea The idea of the settlement was to live among the slum dwellers to give them continuing help. Addams opened up a house in the worst slum in Chicago Named Hull House
Activities at Hull House Reading groups Social clubs Gymnasium Art gallery Kitchen and coffee house Day care center Primary function was as an educational center
Jane Addams as a Suffragette She knew that without the right to vote , women could not influence the passage of legislation that would improve social conditions.
Factory Reform and Child labor laws Campaigned for: Improved factory safety standards Regulation of hours and wages for women Restrictions on child labor
Trade Unions Addams provided a meeting place for working girls Was location for meetings of women’s unions
Nobel Peace Prize She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her work to promote peace. Chairwoman of the Women's Peace Party She became the leader of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Assignment 6.1 Describe subsistence farming. Name the problems faced by the early farmers in Illinois. What two inventions changed farming methods substantially? Who were the inventors? How did the coming of the railroad affect the farmer? Describe corporate farming.
Assignment 6.2 What was the farmer's complaint after the Civil War? What did the Illinois Grangers hope to accomplish? Explain the Munn vs. Illinois case. How was it decided? Who were the greenbackers? The Granger laws had a long term effect. What was it?
Assignment 6.4 What made Chicago the "Hog Butcher to the World"? Name the two most important meat packers in the Chicago area. How did the development of the refrigerator car contribute to the growth of Packing Town? What packing house conditions were portrayed in the book, "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair? Explain how the Spanish-American Civil War caused a scandal in the meat packing business.