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Chapters 35-40 PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapters 35-40

Chapters 35-40

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Chapters 35-40

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  1. Chapters 35-40 Body Systems

  2. Body Systems • Respiratory System • Digestive System • Excretory System • Endocrine System • Reproductive System • Immune System • Nervous System • Skeletal System • Muscular System • Integumentary System • Circulatory System • Blood and the Lymphatic System

  3. Maintain Homeostasis • Homeostasis- keeping internal conditions constant in an organism despite external environments • Ex: temperature, blood pH, oxygen levels

  4. Feedback inhibition

  5. Feedback inhibition

  6. Feedback inhibition -Increase metabolism -Shiver -Behavior

  7. Nervous System • Controls and coordinates functions • Responds to internal and external stimuli • Main Components- neurons, spinal cord, and brain

  8. Neuron: Cell body Dendrite- receive signals Axon- transmits signals Dendrites Stimulus Presynaptic cell Nucleus Axon hillock Cell body Axon Synapse Synaptic terminals Postsynaptic cell Neurotransmitter

  9. Myelin sheath- surrounds and insulates the axon

  10. Axon Plasma membrane Action potential Cytosol Na+ Action potential K+ Na+ K+ Action potential K+ How neurons work video Na+ K+

  11. Synapse- the junction between two neurons that transfers the impulse from one cell to another 5 Na+ K+ Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter Presynaptic membrane Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel Postsynaptic membrane Ca2+ 1 4 6 2 3 Synaptic cleft Ligand-gated ion channels Synape animation

  12. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Cranial nerves Central nervous system (CNS) where integration takes place; includes the brain and a nerve cord Spinal cord Ganglia outside CNS Spinal nerves

  13. Cerebral cortex Cerebrum Thalamus Forebrain Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Midbrain Pons Spinal cord Medulla oblongata Hindbrain Cerebellum

  14. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Cranial nerves Peripheral nervous system (PNS) brings information into and out of the CNS Spinal cord Ganglia outside CNS Spinal nerves

  15. Motor system- carries signals to skeletal muscles and is voluntary • Autonomic nervous system- regulates the internal environment involuntarily

  16. Sympathetic division- correlates with the “fight-or-flight” response • Parasympathetic division- promotes a return to “rest and digest”

  17. Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division Action on target organs: Action on target organs: Dilates pupil of eye Constricts pupil of eye Inhibits salivary gland secretion Stimulates salivary gland secretion Sympathetic ganglia Constricts bronchi in lungs Relaxes bronchi in lungs Cervical Slows heart Accelerates heart Stimulates activity of stomach and intestines Inhibits activity of stomach and intestines Thoracic Stimulates activity of pancreas Inhibits activity of pancreas Stimulates glucose release from liver; inhibits gallbladder Stimulates gallbladder Lumbar Stimulates adrenal medulla Promotes emptying of bladder Inhibits emptying of bladder Sacral Promotes erection of genitals Promotes ejaculation and vaginal contractions Synapse

  18. Skeletal System • Protects internal organs

  19. Skeletal System • Supports the body

  20. Skeletal System • Provides for movement

  21. Skeletal System • Stores mineral reserves Ex: calcium

  22. Skeletal System • Provides a site for blood cell formation • Bone marrow- site of formation for red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

  23. Muscular System

  24. Muscle Tissue Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere Skeletal muscle Nucleus Intercalated disk 100 µm 50 µm Cardiac muscle Nucleus Smooth muscle Muscle fibers 25 µm

  25. Skeletal muscle- attached to bones, voluntary movements, striated Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm Skeletal muscle

  26. Smooth muscle- involuntary movements, found in stomach, intestines, blood vessels, non-striated Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm Smooth muscle

  27. Cardiac muscle- striated, involuntary, found in heart Nucleus Intercalated disk 50 µm Cardiac muscle

  28. Human Grasshopper Extensormusclerelaxes Bicepscontracts Tibiaflexes Flexormusclecontracts Forearmflexes Tricepsrelaxes Bicepsrelaxes Extensormusclecontracts Tibiaextends Forearmextends Flexormusclerelaxes Tricepscontracts

  29. Muscle Sarcomere- the functional unit of a muscle Bundle ofmuscle fibers Nuclei Single muscle fiber(cell) Plasma membrane Myofibril Z lines Sarcomere

  30. Muscle Thin filaments- two strands of actin (protein) Thick filaments- staggered arrays of myosin (protein) Bundle ofmuscle fibers Nuclei Single muscle fiber(cell) Plasma membrane Myofibril Z lines Sarcomere

  31. Thin filaments- two strands of actin (protein) Thick filaments- staggered arrays of myosin (protein) TEM 0.5 µm M line Thickfilaments(myosin) Thinfilaments(actin) Z line Z line Sarcomere

  32. Integumentary System • Skin, hair, and nails -Barrier against infection and injury • Regulates body temperature • Removes waste products • - Protects against UV radiation

  33. Epidermis- outer layer of skin • Keratin- tough, fibrous protein • Melanin- dark brown pigment protects the skin from UV radiation

  34. Circulatory System • Heart and blood vessels

  35. Artery Vein Artery- blood vessel going away from heart Vein- blood vessel going towards heart Capillary- smallest blood vessels, site of gas and nutrient exchange SEM Valve 100 µm Basal lamina Endothelium Endothelium Smooth muscle Smooth muscle Connective tissue Connective tissue Capillary Artery Vein Arteriole Venule 15 µm Red blood cell Capillary LM

  36. Capillaries of head and forelimbs Superior vena cava 7 Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right lung Aorta 9 Capillaries of left lung 3 3 2 4 11 Pulmonary vein Pulmonary vein 5 1 Right atrium Left atrium 10 Right ventricle Left ventricle Inferior vena cava Aorta Capillaries of abdominal organs and hind limbs 8

  37. Heart Right atrium- receives blood from body Right ventricle- pumps blood to lungs Left atrium- receives blood from lungs Left ventricle- pumps blood to body

  38. Pulmonary artery Aorta Pulmonary artery Right atrium Left atrium Semilunar valve Semilunar valve Atrioventricular valve Atrioventricular valve Right ventricle Left ventricle

  39. Amphibians- Frogs and other amphibians have a three-chambered heart: two atria and one ventricle Amphibians Reptiles (Except Birds) Mammals and Birds Lung and skin capillaries Lung capillaries Lung capillaries Right systemic aorta Pulmocutaneous circuit Pulmonary circuit Pulmonary circuit Atrium (A) Atrium (A) A A A A V V Ventricle (V) V V Left systemic aorta Left Right Left Right Right Left Systemic circuit Systemic circuit Systemic capillaries Systemic capillaries Systemic capillaries

  40. Blood and the Lymphatic System • Blood- 90% plasma (fluid) • Red blood cells (erythrocytes) • Transport oxygen • Contains hemoglobin- oxygen binds to this iron-containing protein

  41. White Blood cells (leukocytes)- fight pathogens • Platelets- aid in blood clotting

  42. Lymphatic system • A network of vessels, nodes, and organs that collect fluid lost by the blood and returns it to the circulatory system. Lymph nodes filter and trap pathogens

  43. Respiratory System • Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood, and between blood and body tissues. • Pharynx- used for air and food • Trachea- connects pharynx to lungs

  44. Respiratory System • Epiglottis- prevents food from going down trachea • Larynx- contains vocal cords

  45. Branch of pulmonary vein (oxygen-rich blood) Branch of pulmonary artery (oxygen-poor blood) • Bronchi- large tubes for air flow in lungs Terminal bronchiole Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Alveoli (Esophagus) Left lung Trachea Right lung Bronchus Bronchiole Diaphragm Heart SEM Colorized SEM 50 µm 50 µm

  46. Branch of pulmonary vein (oxygen-rich blood) Branch of pulmonary artery (oxygen-poor blood) • Alveoli- site of gas exchange Terminal bronchiole Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Alveoli (Esophagus) Left lung Trachea Right lung Bronchus Bronchiole Diaphragm Heart SEM Colorized SEM 50 µm 50 µm

  47. Digestive System Smallmolecules Piecesof food Chemical digestion(enzymatic hydrolysis) Nutrientmoleculesenter bodycells Mechanicaldigestion Undigestedmaterial Food Ingestion Digestion Elimination Absorption 2 4 1 3

  48. Salivaryglands Mouth Esophagus Gall-bladder Stomach Smallintestine Liver Pancreas Largeintestine Rectum Anus A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system