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Test Preparation

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  1. Test Preparation Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 1

  2. Guidelines Appropriate Test-Preparation Practices -- Dr. James Popham Professional Ethics: No test-preparation practice should violate the ethical norms of the education profession. Educational Defensibility: No test-preparation practice should increase students’ test scores without simultaneously increasing mastery of the curricular aim tested. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 2

  3. Good Test Preparation Practices • Classroom Instruction uses Formative Assessment Processes to Prepare Students for the Test • Apple Tree • Learning Progressions are used in Classroom Instruction Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 3

  4. Teaching to the Test • Cherry Pick the items so that you select what is to be tested rather than what is instructionally sound. • Learning progressions are ignored. • The best apple! Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 4

  5. Intended Learning Outcomes Meeting the Standards Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 5

  6. 1. Understand Utility Knife– that sound and appropriate test preparation directly depends on the purpose of the test for which the student is being prepared Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 6

  7. 2. Review and construct Pro and Con List Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 7

  8. 3. Establish criteria for deciding what is sound, questionable, and unsound test preparation practice. Unsound Sound Questionable? Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 8

  9. 4. Create a continuum Of test preparation practices from sound and appropriate to unsound and inappropriate. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 9

  10. Popham: Never, Never Say “Teaching to the Test” Say: “Teaching to the test’s items.” Or Say: “Teaching to the curricular aim presented by the test.” Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 10

  11. Beneficial Effects for Test-Preparation Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 11

  12. Beneficial Effects 1. The standard or benchmarkbeing tested is aligned to the test and clearly understood by teacher and student. 2. The criterion for successful performanceis clearly understood by teacher and student. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 12

  13. Beneficial Effects 3. Students have a variety of waysin which to demonstrate proficiency on the standard. 4. Teacher teaches conceptsrather than drills students on applications. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 14

  14. Harmful Effects Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 1

  15. Harmful Effects 1. Test is not aligned to standard or benchmark being taught. 2. Criterion for success on the standard is not clear to student. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 15

  16. Harmful Effects 3. Teacher teaches the actual items on the test itself. 4. On a math test teacher creates “clones” of actual test items by keeping the question and answer choices but substituting different numbers. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 16

  17. Harmful Effects 5. Teacher limits ways students can demonstrate competency. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 17

  18. The Theory of “Successive Approximations” Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 18

  19. Students do best when they have opportunities to try what they know and are able to do against a clearly understood standard or criterion Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 19

  20. Students do best when they receive meaningful feedback about their performance. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 20

  21. Students use meaningful feedback to improve their performance on successive administrations of the test. They continually move closer (“approximate”) to the standard or criterion. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 21

  22. Summary Dr. Popham reminds teachers: Creators of high-stakes tests need to supply curricular aim descriptions from which sound instructional decisions can be made! Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 22

  23. Activity One Briefly respond to the following questions: • What does the phrase “teaching to the test” mean to you? • Do you believe that “teaching to the test” is helpful or harmful to students? Why ? Share your responses with a partner. On what points do you agree or disagree? 1 Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 23

  24. Activity Two Please read Dr. Popham’s handout on the Five Test-Preparation Practices. Individually or in small groups discuss how you use the following preparations: • Previous-form • Current-form • Generalized test-taking • Same-format • Varied-form 2 Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 24