Marine Protected AreasMPAs • By Peyton Thomasson • and • Sarah Glover
Establishment • Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) were established in the early part of the 20th century and by 1985 around 430 small MPAs were proclaimed throughout the world. The first MPA was probably Fort Jefferson National Monument in Florida which was established in 1935. By 2010 the world had 1588 MPAs encompassing 1.17% of the world’s oceans in a majority of the countries in the world.
Notable MPAs Around the World • The Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia • Dry Tortugas in the Florida Keys, USA • Chagos Archepelago in the Indian Ocean • Channel Islands in California, USA • Ligurian Sea Cetacean Sanctuary in the seas of Italy, Monaco, and France
Positive Effects • Value and biodiversity conservation • Protected areas for research and management tools • Generate recreational, aesthetic, and educational benefits • Reversal of endangered or threatened species and maintenance of genetic diversity • Fisheries benefit from spillover and increased dispersal of eggs and larval propagules, insurance against stock collapse • Can be used to assess impact of human activities on environments and as locations to collect data that is unobtainable in fished systems
Negative Effects • MPAs cost human society through displaced fishing effort, short term reductions in catches, false security • MPAs are not a universal remedy for all threats affecting marine ecosystems but are still arguably the most effective in marine management
Sources • http://www.cfto.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/HISTORY-OF-MARINE-PROTECTED-AREAS.pd • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_protected_area#Notable_marine_protected_areas