Strengthening Students’ Literacy and Learning through Reading Apprenticeship®World History Summer Institutehttp://ra.3csn.org
Creating a community of learners • Think of a time when you were in a learning situation in community that went very well for you. What would it take to make today’s workshop that kind of successful learning environment for you?
Personal Reading History “ When students reflect on and share their personal reading histories, they have an opportunity to view themselves and their classmates more generously, as ‘readers in progress,’ with reader identities they can understand and change” (Schoenbach, Greenleaf and Murphy 79). 5
Write about some key moments or events in your development as a reader in your discipline. • What experiences stand out for you? High points? Low points? • Were there times when your reading experience or the materials you were reading made you feel like an insider? Like an outsider? • What supported your literacy development in this subject area? What discouraged it?
Personal Reading History • Share some highlights of your reading history with a partner. Make sure that each of you has had an opportunity to read or tell your story uninterrupted before you respond to what you’ve heard. • Once both people have had a chance to share, discuss what you’ve learned about each other: what were some commonalities? What were some surprises?
Personal Reading History • What did you learn about yourself as a reader? About your partner? • What supported your reading development? • What discouraged it? • What are some commonalities? Surprises?
Classroom Application • What are some possible benefits and/or drawbacks of doing a Personal Reading History with your students? • How might you modify this Personal Reading History activity to fit your classroom? 9
Primary Sources in World History Professor John Allen 16
Reading Apprenticeship • A partnership of expertise between the teacher and students, drawing on what content area teachers know and do as skilled discipline-based readers and on learners’ unique and often underestimated strengths
WestEd’sStrategic Literacy Initiative (SLI) • A professional development and research organization focusing on improving academic literacy in diverse populations of adolescents and post-secondary students using Reading Apprenticeship, a research-based instructional framework.
Reading Apprenticeship Professional Development activities mirror classroom application
Capturing your Reading Process • Thinking about your thinking while reading • Engages students and teachers in a metacognitive conversation about • how we read • Key professional development and classroom strategy 15
Capturing your Reading Process • Read the text silently as you normally would when you want to understand something. (Marx, Capital) • You’ll have about five minutes to read, and we’ll do a short writing piece afterward. • Please reread if you finish early.
Capturing your Reading Process • What strategies did you use to make sense of the text? • What got in the way of your reading? • What, if any, comprehension problems did you solve? • Which, if any, problems still remain?
Small group discussion: opening a window into our thinking • What did I do? • Where did I do it? • How did that affect my reading and understanding? 18
Reading Strategies List • A living document that helps the class engage in metacognitive conversations about what we do to problem solve as we read. 19
Reflect Reading Process Analysis • What did you notice about your or someone else’s reading that is new or surprising? • What are some of the benefits and challenges of doing RPA with your students? • What modifications would you make? • How can you begin a metacognitive conversation with students about their own literacy experiences? 20
Think Aloud A direct route into metacognitive conversation
Case Study Assignment • Study of WWII Japanese internment • U.S. Constitution • Supreme Court Decision on Korematsu
Think Aloud • Helps students to notice and say when they are confused, and use each other as resources for making meaning • Helps you to practice making your thinking visible, so you can model effective ways of reading texts in your discipline for students • Helps to give names to the cognitive strategies that we use to comprehend text • Helps to notice text structures and how we navigate various genres to build confidence, range, and stamina
Think Aloud 25
Pairs Try Think Aloud • As one person reads and thinks aloud, the partner annotates on the text • After each chunk, discuss the meaning and agree on a summary sentence • Then switch roles thinking aloud and annotating the text.
Reflect on Think Aloud • What did you notice about your own or your partner’s thinking and reading? • What did you notice about the demands of this text? • What do you have to know in order to make sense of this text?
Problem Solving made Visible Through Think Aloud, we begin to problem-solve using cognitive strategies that we name and talk explicitly about—routine metacognitive conversations. 27
Schema Demands • What is challenging about this text? • What do we have to draw upon in order to make sense of it? • What did you notice about the difference between reading alone and reading with a partner? 28
Classroom Case Inquiry • Observe how one teacher supports disciplinary, rigorous thinking and reading in her class • Inquire how Reading Apprenticeship can be embedded into a content class • We won’t be evaluating the lesson or coaching the teacher
Read the Context • Scan the subheadings and find one section you want to read carefully • Look at the lesson at a glance” 30
Observations? • What do you notice about the way Gayle organizes her class and her long-term goals? 31
Evidence/Interpretation Observations must be grounded in Evidence! 32
Viewing Focus • 1’s: What do you notice about the students’ reading and talk about reading? • 2’s What do you notice about the supports for students’ talking and reading? 33
Pair Share • Keep your discussion based on the evidence of what you saw students and teacher doing • Focus on the disciplinary ways of thinking (historical) the students are learning to practice 34
Whole Group Reflection • What does the teacher say? • What can you take-away from this inquiry? • How can you apply what you learned in your classroom? 35
Talking to the Text This strategy is basically a think aloud on paper. It differs from think aloud in two key ways: • the individual reflection on the reading process is written, not spoken • the metacognitive conversation is delayed until after the individual reading and reflecting
Pair Discussion • What were did you do as you read? • What reading strategies did you use? • What schema (knowledge) did you bring to the text?
Group Share • What did you notice about your partner’s thinking? • Did you learn something you would not have thought of on your own? • What similarities and differences did you notice between you and your partner? • What kind of knowledge did you or your partner bring to the text?
Reflect on Talking to the Text • How did it feel to Talk to the Text? • What similarities and differences did you notice about Thinking Aloud and Talking to the Text? • What might be some of the benefits and burdens of engaging students in Talking to the Text in your own classes? 36
World History Institute Tuesday
Metacognitive Logs “Metacognitivelogs can help students become more aware of their thinking as readers and give them more control over how well they learn. The logs can be a place for students to document their reading experiences in preparation for sharing and problem solving in the whole class community”
Toussaint Louverture • Take a few minutes to read the text and use the note taker
Share your notes in groups • Notice similarities and differences • What are of the benefits and burdens of using these note takers • What modifications might you make?
Whole Group Share Out • What similarities and differences did you notice in your note taking? • Benefits and burdens? • How might you use this technique in your classroom? • How can you use this activity to foster a metacognitive conversation with students?
Try it out ! • As you listen to the content talks today, experiment with the Metacognitive Reading Logs in your packets