Resolving the V7 and its Inversions Dominant to Tonic
Let’s stack some 3rds! • Let’s create a V7 chord by stacking 3rds on scale degree 5. • SATB style, anyone? • What is the quality of the intervals between the chord tones?
Resolving the dissonant intervals • *A chordal seventh(almost) always resolves DOWN by step* • In a dominant to tonic cadence, scale degree 7 leads to scale degree one • When a root position V7 moves to a root position I, one chord must be incomplete.
Incomplete, you say? • Yes, to avoid those dreaded parallel 5ths! • An incomplete chord is one that is lacking 5th, which is considered the least essential interval. • An incomplete I/i chord: • Written with 3 roots and one third. • An incomplete V7 chord: • The root is usually doubled and the 5th is left out.
One more example • V7 to I in G major • Notice how the last chord is missing the 5th
Inversions of V7 to I • Root position • 1st inversion (3rd in bass) • Bass must resolve up to tonic • 2nd inversion (5th in bass) • Bass usually resolves down a step to tonic • 3rd inversion (7th in bass) • Must resolve to a first inversion I chord.
First inversion- V65 • Notice how the leading tone resolves upward
2nd Inversion 43 • The tri-tone between scale degrees 7 and 4 resolves inward
3rd Inversion 42 • Scale degree 4 in the bass resolves downward • the leading tone resolves upward to G
If you take anything away… Just remember: The chordal 7th (scale degree 4) resolves DOWN to scale degree 3 The leading tone (scale degree 7) resolves UPWARD to scale degree 1 (tonic)