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  1. Population Genetics and Speciation Chapter 16 Table of Contents Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Section 2 Disruption of Genetic Equilibrium Section 3 Formation of Species

  2. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Objectives • Identifytraits that vary in populations and that may be studied. • Explainthe importance of the bell curve to population genetics. • Compare three causes of genetic variation in a population. • Calculate allele frequency and phenotype frequency. • ExplainHardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium.

  3. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Variation of Traits Within a Population • Population biologists study many different traits in populations, such as size and color.

  4. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Variation of Traits Within a Population, continued • Causes of Variation • Traits vary and can be mapped along a bell curve, which shows that most individuals have average traits, whereas a few individuals have extreme traits. • Variations in genotype arise by mutation,recombination, and the random pairing of gametes.

  5. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 The Gene Pool • The total genetic information available in a population is called thegene pool.

  6. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 The Gene Pool, continued • Allele frequency is determined by dividing the total number of a certain allele by the total number of alleles of all types in the population.

  7. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 The Gene Pool, continued • Predicting Phenotype • Phenotype frequency is equal to the number of individuals with a particular phenotype divided by the total number of individuals in the population.

  8. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 The Hardy-Weinberg Genetic Equilibrium • Allele frequencies in the gene pool do not change unless acted upon by certain forces. • Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibriumis a theoretical model of a population in which no evolution occurs and the gene pool of the population is stable.

  9. Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Phenotype Frequency

  10. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Objectives • Listfive conditions under which evolution may take place. • Explain how migration can affect the genetics of populations. • Explainhow genetic drift can affect populations of different sizes. • Contrastthe effects of stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive selection on populations over time. • Identify examples of nonrandom mating.

  11. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Mutation • Evolution may take place when populations are subject to genetic mutations, gene flow, genetic drift, nonrandom mating, or natural selection. • Mutations are changes in the DNA.

  12. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Gene Flow • Emigration and immigration cause gene flow between populations and can thus affect gene frequencies.

  13. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Genetic Drift • Genetic driftis a change in allele frequencies due to random events. • Genetic drift operates most strongly in small populations.

  14. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Nonrandom Mating • Mating is nonrandom whenever individuals may choose partners.

  15. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Nonrandom Mating, continued • Sexual Selection • Sexual selection occurs when certain traits increase an individual’s success at mating. • Sexual selection explains the development of traits that improve reproductive success but that may harm the individual.

  16. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Natural Selection • Natural selectioncan influence evolution in one of three general patterns.

  17. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Natural Selection, continued • Stabilizing Selection • Stabilizing selectionfavors the formation of average traits.

  18. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Natural Selection, continued • Disruptive Selection • Disruptive selectionfavors extreme traits rather than average traits.

  19. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Natural Selection, continued • Directional Selection • Directional selectionfavors the formation of more-extreme traits.

  20. Section 2 Disruption ofGenetic Equilibrium Chapter 16 Two Kinds of Selection

  21. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Objectives • Relatethe biological species concept to the modern definition of species. • Explain how the isolation of populations can lead to speciation. • Comparetwo kinds of isolation and the pattern of speciation associated with each. • Contrastthe model of punctuated equilibrium with the model of gradual change.

  22. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 The Concept of Species • According to the biological species concept, a species is a population of organisms that can successfully interbreed but cannot breed with other groups.

  23. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Isolation and Speciation • Geographic Isolation • Geographic isolation results from the separation of population subgroups by geographic barriers.

  24. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Geographic Isolation Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  25. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Isolation and Speciation, continued • Allopatric Speciation • Geographic isolation may lead to allopatric speciation.

  26. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Isolation and Speciation, continued • Reproductive Isolation • Reproductive isolation results from the separation of population subgroups by barriers to successful breeding.

  27. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Reproductive Isolation Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  28. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Isolation and Speciation, continued • Sympatric Speciation • Reproductive isolation within the same geographic area is known as sympatric speciation.

  29. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Rates of Speciation • In the gradual model of speciation (gradualism), species undergo small changes at a constant rate. • Under punctuated equilibrium, new species arise abruptly, differ greatly from their ancestors, and then change little over long periods.

  30. Section 3 Formation of Species Chapter 16 Comparing Punctuated Equilibrium and Gradualism Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept