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Art of the Early Renaissance

Art of the Early Renaissance

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Art of the Early Renaissance

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  1. Art of the Early Renaissance Presented by Ed White Adapted from Mike Venegas UTEP

  2. Renaissance • A period from the early 1300’s to roughly 1600 when there was a renewed interest in history literature and art. • Renaissance = “Rebirth” • Europe’s economic recovery • Renewed study of ancient Greece and Rome

  3. Humanism • The birth of humanism • Humanism was an ideal that focused on the world of mankind as much as a concern for the hereafter. (Civic, Religious) • Rejected medieval view of humanity and focused on the goodness of mankind

  4. Humanism (cont.) • Began in Florence, Italy • Ideal setting • Wealthy patrons Cosimo De Medici

  5. Early Renaissance • Period from 1400 to 1500 • Artist as a craftsmen • Art created by commission • Art through imitation

  6. Workshop system • Collaboration of masters and apprentices • Family-based • Run like a business Palazza de Vecchio

  7. Workshop • Art was commissioned • Apprentice started in early teens • Studied under master for several years Elizabeth 1

  8. Products of the workshop system • Michaelangelo • Master – Domenico Ghirlandaio • Leonardo da Vinci • Master- Andrea del Verocchio

  9. Innovations • Frescoes- art created on damp plaster • Oil paints • Realistic portrayal of human nature

  10. Innovations • Chiaroscurro- use of shadows to show balance of light and dark • Science • Linear perspective- allowed artist to represent objects in relative sizes

  11. Giotto • Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. • Father of the Renaissance • Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight. • The figures seem to extend both backward, into the picture, and forward, toward the spectator’s space.

  12. slide

  13. Filippo Bruneleschi(1337-1446) • Florentine architect and engineer • First to carry out a series of optical experiments that led to a mathematical theory of perspective. • His method of perspective had a dramatic impact on the depiction of 3-dimensional space in the arts

  14. One point linear perspective Pierro della Francesca “View of an Ideal City”

  15. Masaccio(1401-1428) • One of first artists to apply the new method of linear perspective in his fresco of the Holy Trinity • Used a barrel vaulted ceiling to imitate with precision the true appearance of architectural space • Figures depict accurate human anatomy

  16. The Holy Trinity

  17. Pierro della Francesca(1416-1492) • Expressed an obsession with perspective • His works are characterized by carefully analyzed architectural spaces and sensitivity to geometric purity of shapes. • Wrote several treatises on perspective and geometry

  18. Carefully analyzed perspective and geometry • The Discovery and Proving of the True Cross

  19. Donatello(1386-1466) • New sense of naturalism in sculpture • Use of classical contrapposto stance (relaxed not rigid) • Statue of David considered first full scale nude since ancient times

  20. Andrea Mantegna(1430-1506) • Created unusual vantage points • Looking at figures from below • Lamentation of the Dead Christ the viewer is looking from the feet of the subject. • Deep foreshortening • Effectively placed the viewer at the scene, adding to the sense of empathy

  21. Lamentation of the Dead Christ • Use of unusual vantage points

  22. Sandra Boticelli(1445-1510) • First artist to paint a full-length female nude • In Birth of Venus the figure occupies the center of the work which was traditionally reserved for the Virgin. This work is possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance.

  23. Birth of Venus

  24. Other Classics: The Vitruvian Man

  25. Da Vinci Self Portrait? Mona Lisa

  26. Michael Angelo, La Pieta

  27. Sistine Chapel

  28. Raphael, The School of Athens

  29. Literature in the Early Renaissance Jennifer Montes

  30. Before the Renaissance • Christian Age • Literary production limited • Important original books of the time • Exameron by St. Ambrose • City of God and the Confessions by St. Augustine • Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius

  31. Characterized by: • Large collections of church hymns • Didactic poems of relative significance • Sermons • Theological treatises • Legends of various saints • Fables • Historical chronicles beginning with Creation

  32. Rise of Humanism • Involved the modern discovery or rediscovery of those fields we now call the humanities • History, moral and political philosophy, poetry, literature, rhetoric, grammar, and linguistic study and interpretation.  • Humanism was a deliberate revival, renascence, or "renaissance" of the arts and humanities. 

  33. Humanism • Humanists took Christian ideas and secular and pagan (Greek and Roman) ideas to gain knowledge useful in making them better people • Virtuous, responsible, educated citizens, aware of what had been thought and done at other times and places.  • The humanists sought to understand what it was to be fully human.

  34. Early Renaissance affected by: • Works of Dante • Works of Petrarch • Invention and widespread use of movable type

  35. Dante Alighieri • Born in Florence, Italy in 1265 • Son of Alighiero di Bellincione Alighieri and his first wife Bella • Wrote his first book “Vita Nuova” (New Life) in 1294 • Exiled in 1302

  36. Exile • De Vulgari Eloquentia –treatise on his native language • Never completed • Il Convivio –collection of verse • Never completed • Began writing the Commedia (Divine Comedy) in 1306

  37. La Divina Commedia • The Divine Comedy • Completed in 1321 • Narrative poem • Written in terza rima (third rhyme) • a verse form consisting of tercets • rhyme scheme (aba, bcb, cdc) • Form modified by Dante

  38. Divine Comedy • Allegory of human life written to convert the corrupt to righteousness • Represents three realms of the Christian afterlife • Inferno (Hell) • Puragatorio (Purgatory) • Paradiso (Heaven

  39. Influences of Dante • Virgil • Lucan • Theological Influences • St. Thomas Aquinas • Sts. Gregory, Isidore, Anselm, and Bonaventure • Boethius

  40. Influenced by Dante • Artists • Giotto • “Cimabue thought/To lord it over painting’s field; and now/ The cry is Giotto’s, and his name eclipsed.” (Purgatorio, canto XI) • Michelangelo Buonarroti’s Last Judgement • Salvadore Dali

  41. Michelangelo

  42. Dali’s representation of Dante

  43. Influenced by Dante • Authors • Shelley • Byron • Yeats • T.S. Eliot

  44. Francesco Petrarca • Born in Arezzo in 1304 • Son of a Ser Petracco • 1341 crowned poet laureate in Rome • Created works in Latin • Most popular are those written in Italian • Trionfi—allegorical and moral • Written in terza rima

  45. Canzoniere • “Song Book” • Considered Petrarch’s masterpiece • Contains mostly sonnets • To a lesser degree canzoni, sestine, ballate, and madrigals

  46. Canzoniere • Inspired by the lady, Laura • Deals with Love, political and patriotic feeling, and issues of morality • Unrequited Love • Seeing her brings him joy • Creates unfulfilled desires

  47. Laura • First saw his “muse”, Laura, April 6, 1327 (Good Friday) in the church of Sainte-Claire d’ Avignon • Some doubt her existance • Others believe she may have been the wife of Hugues de Sade

  48. The Petrarchian Sonnet • Now known also as the Italian Sonnet • 14 lines • Consists of 2 divisions • First eight lines (octet) • Second six lines (sestet) • Rhyme Scheme • Abbaabbacdecde

  49. Sonnet 140 Amor, che nel penser mio vive et regna (a) e 'l suo seggio maggior nel mio cor tene, (b) talor armato ne la fronte vene; (b) ivi si loca et ivi pon sua insegna. (a) Quella ch' amare et sofferir ne 'nsegna (a) e vol che 'l gran desio, l'accesa spene (b) ragion, vergogna, et reverenza affrene, (b) di nostro ardir fra se stessa si sdegna. (a) Onde Amor paventoso fugge al core, (c) lasciando ogni sua impresa, et piange et trema; (d) ivi s'asconde et non appar più fore. (e) Che poss' io far, temendo il mio signore, (c) se non star seco infin a l'ora estrema? (d) ché bel fin fa chi ben amando more. (e)