Week 9: Development Management Monica Jacobo-Suarez Peace Medie Brandon Boylan
Golden Oldies • Authors • Fred Riggs, Administration in Developing Countries: Theory of the Prismatic Society • B.B. Schaffer, “The Deadlock in Development Administration” • Malcolm Wallis, Bureaucracy
B.B. Schaffer, “The Deadlock in Development Administration” • What is development administration? Development administration is the distinction of administration for development programs, policies, and plans in those political systems in which there are unusually extensive needs, few resources, and severe obstacles to meeting needs (p. 184).
B.B. Schaffer, “The Deadlock in Development Administration” • What is the deadlock in the development administration? Difficulty of change and inadequacy of progress of administrative conditions v. Advocacy of more management analysis, competent management, & managers The paradox is only too clear: on the one hand a search for change via administrative means, on the other a suspicion, a dissatisfaction, a distrust of administration, and at times a specifically anti-administrative position” (p.185).
Types of Administration • Bureaucracy: A particular set of solutions for the expected problems that political relationships face. It is a distinctive style in which the relationships can be conducted. Its problem: not an efficiency or output model. It relies on compartmentalization and administrators, repetition and reiteration, rather than innovation (p. 188-199). • Community Development: Village organization and other levels of government. Its problem: it’s political, not administrative, concerned with means and not ends (p. 203-206).
Malcolm Wallis, Bureaucracy • Max Weber’s analysis of bureaucracy: • Based on rules accepted by organization’s members • Continuous in operations • Spheres of competence (authority and obligations) • Hierarchical • Officials must be trained • Officials are not owners of the means of production • Officials do not own their jobs; jobs belong to the org. • Requires maintenance of records
Malcolm Wallis, Bureaucracy • Bureaucracy in the developing world has its roots in colonialism (e.g. British policy of indirect rule) • Bureaucracy after colonialism remained unchanged • Critics of Weber’s bureaucracy • Robert Merton: bureaucracy leads to trained incapacity (rigidity over flexibility) • Elton Mayo, Peter Blau: humans in bureaucratic processes form informal groups (those that are not administered purposefully by the bureaucracy) • B.B. Schaffer: Bureaucracy is not an efficiency or output model
Malcolm Wallis, Bureaucracy • The Political Environment • Senior politicians create policy, which is carried out by administrators • Bureaucracies exist in the presence of military rule • African countries aimed to construct an ideology on which to formulate a development strategy. Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia administered African Socialism • Are countries that rely on foreign aid committed to development, or do they fear that with progress comes less money?
Fred Riggs, Administration in Developing Countries: Theory of the Prismatic Society. Purpose: To provide a model to properly understand public administration in developing countries • Formalism: A model that does not represent reality • Structural-functional approach • Light analogy: Diffraction of light in the colors of the rainbow. • The fused light represents the fused structures of traditional societies. • The rainbow represents the diffracted structures of industrial societies. • Inside the prism is the society in transition. • Prismatic society: Neither modern nor traditional. It contains novel elements produced by the juxtaposition of old and new social structures.
Fred Riggs, Administration in Developing Countries: Theory of the Prismatic Society.
Fred Riggs, Administration in Developing Countries: Theory of the Prismatic Society. • Prismatic societies do not mean transitional. No a temporary stage between traditional agriculture and modern industrialization, but a separate model with its own rules and rules. • Even when some structures are fused, that does not mean that administrative functions are not performed. Rather, they are performed by concrete structures oriented to accomplish specific functions and also by structures lacking this primary orientation/goal. • In this approach, the process of modernization entails increasing structural differentiation.
Fred Riggs, Administration in Developing Countries: Theory of the Prismatic Society • The prismatic economic scene resembles a market with its dynamics of exchange influenced by political, religious, prestigious considerations • Prices are determined by both market and arena factors • In the prismatic model, there is price indeterminacy in regards to goods and services, money, land and security • Welfare factors change negatively as marketization increases but this could be because welfare values cannot improve until a critical threshold has been passed
Fred Riggs, Administration in Developing Countries: Theory of the Prismatic Society • Social values in the prismatic mode • The Elite: Hold high positions in terms of power • The Elect: Have power, wealth, prestige, learning etc. • In the prismatic model, elite recruitment is partially ascriptive and partially achieved • The Role of Wealth • Prismatic wealth is spent in the quest for power • The Role of Learning • Power eligibility lies in status and rank, rather than relevant learning and skills
Synthesis • Authors: • Milton Esman, Management Dimensions of Development: Perspectives and Strategies (Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1991) • Ferrel Heady, Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991 or latest edition). • John Martinussen, Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing Theories of Development (London: Zed Press, 1997). • Kathleen Staudt, Managing Development: State, Society and International Contexts (Newbury Park: Sage, 1991). • Mark Turner and David Hulme, Governance, Administration and Development: Making the State Work (West Hartford: Kumarian, 1997) • Derrick W. Brinkerhoff and Jennifer M. Coston, "International Development in a Globalized World"
Central Themes Development Administration & Management • Administrative reforms have been guided by the continuing search for performance improvement. Those reforms are characterized by departing from the hierarchical Weberian model to a more flexible one, usually identified as New Public Management (Turner, Esman, Brinkerhoff). • Development administration deals with policies and plans in political systems that suffer from unusually extensive needs, few resources, and severe obstacles to meeting needs (Schaffer)
Central Themes Development Administration & Management ) • Guy Gran and David Korten advocate for people-managed development. They propose a horizontal-level of management that is powered by people on the ground. • Paradox: change via administrative reform yet suspicion and dissatisfaction of administration itself (Schaffer) • Comparative administration (Heady)
Central ThemesBureaucracy • Bureaucracy is a vitally important instrument of development. It’s not good or bad per se; desirable outcomes are possible with appropriate policies and actions (Turner, Esman). • Bureaucracy is a particular set of solutions for expected problems that political relationships face (Schaffer). Elements include hierarchy, differentiation, and qualification (Heady). • Review and critique of Weber’s bureaucratic model (Wallis).
Central themesBureaucracy • Guy Gran critiques bureaucratic governance and current development strategies because they are based on neoliberal principles. In addition, bureaucracies are top-down and workers are separated from their clients • Staudt argues that bureaucracy can be made more manageable by increasing accountability within organizations and with the public
Central ThemesNGO Management • NGOs face problems in scaling up successful projects. They are not accustomed to moving from the micro-level to the macro-level. Thus, Mackie suggests “planned multiplication of micro-level inputs.” NGOs also face problems with hierarchy, raising money (v. awareness), and evaluating effectiveness. Rapid growth seems to have caused organizational problems in British development NGOs in the early 1990s (Billis and MacKeith).
Thank You Questions