www.foodandbeverage.sydneyinstitute.wikispaces.net SITXCOM001A Work with colleagues and customers firstname.lastname@example.org
LESSON PLAN Revision Communication –Continued Types of Communication Body Language Space Media for Communication Barriers to Communication
On successful completion of this chapter you will be able to: • Communicate with others • Maintain personal presentation standards • Provide service to colleagues and customers • Respond to conflicts and customer complaints • Work in a team.
Who is a Customer • someone who pays for goods or services • Who are some customers we see in hotels? • Travel & Tour tourists • Accommodation – hotel staying guests • Guests who use Restaurant/Café/Bar/Club/Casino • Guests attending Events, Conferences, Weddings • Airlines crew
External Vs Internal Customers • Who is an external customer? Examples • travelling alone, with family or friends • business travellers • women – single, pregnant, with young children • travellers with special cultural and/or language needs • travellers with disability/ special needs /budget backpackers /luxury/five star travellers • product preferences • industry partners • Who is an internal customer? • Examples • peers • subordinates • supervisors • colleagues in other departments
Communication • Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another • Workplace communication is between ourselves and our colleagues (internal customers) and between ourselves and clients (external customers).
Communication • Communication is more than just telling someone something. It involves the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another. • It is successful only when it is understood by the receiver in the manner the senderintended. • How something is said is often more important than the words which are being spoken. • In fact, only about 7% of a message is taken in through words, 23% by the tone of the voice and the final 70% through body language.
Communication • Irrespective of who we communicate with, the golden rules of communication are: • Be polite, professional and friendly • Use an appropriate tone • Use appropriate body language • Show sensitivity to differences • Actively listen • Ask questions to facilitate understanding
Communication Model Channels Message • Encode • Sender • Background • Culture • Religion • Education • Experience • Ideas • Feelings • Gender • Age • Self concept Decode Receiver Background Culture Religion Experience Education Ideas Feelings Gender Age Self Concept Noise or interference Feedback
How to Communicate with customers • Stages of communication • The sender – how this person communicates is – is based on level of education, self-image, cultural background, family, friends, attitude, feelings and emotions. • The message – the link between sender and receiver. May be written, verbal, non-verbal or all three. • The receiver –is similar to sender - It is not relevant if receiver agrees with message, what is important is that message is received as intended. • Feedback – receiver lets sender know that message has been received and understood
Communicate with customers • Choosing the right channel – before sending the message we need to consider: • The intended audience - • The purpose of the communication • The situation • Degree of formality required • Urgency/time frames • Access of sender and receiver to equipment.
How do we communicate with customers • Verbal • Non-Verbal • Written
Communicate with customers Oral communication • The most frequent form of communication. Can be delivered: • Face to face • Over the telephone • When using a two-way communication system. • Three elements of communication are vitally important: • Verbal – what we say • Vocal – how we say it • Visual – what the receiver sees. All three need to communicate the same meaning to be effective.
Communicate with customers Refining our verbal communication • Whilst we use a lot of words(jargon) and is useful to communicate, we need to be careful not to use it in the wrong circumstance. • When speaking, we need to: • Speak clearly • Avoid slang? • Develop our vocabulary • Make the content appropriate and relevant • Put the words in the correct context.
Communicate with customers Refining our vocal communication • Includes our voice projection, tone, pitch, speed and breathing techniques • We need to: • Vary our tone • Be aware of pitch • Project our voice • Speak to consistent speed • Remember to breathe! • Smile
Communicate with customers Refining our vocal communication • Includes our voice projection, tone, pitch, speed and breathing techniques. • We need to: • Vary our tone • Be aware of pitch • Project our voice • Speak to consistent speed • Remember to breathe!
Communicate with customers Refining our visual communication • Arguably the most important element as people watch what we do when we speak as much as what we say. We need to: • Be aware of personal space • Maintain eye contact and be aware of facial expressions • Maintain strong posture and develop appropriate hand and body movements • Maintain a high standard of personal presentation.
Non-verbal communication • Types of body language - the non-verbal signals, movements and gestures we use to aid/hinder communication. They include • Open body language means we are receptive to the message being sent. We demonstrate this through signals such as maintaining eye contact, smiling, and nodding head • Closed may indicate we are not interested in the message, and we indicate this through looking away, folding our arms or legs, frowning, or rolling the eyes Body language should not be interpreted in isolation and must be read in conjunction with what is being said (verbal message), and how (vocal). We must also allow for cultural differences.
Types of body language • Open • Smiling • Good eye contact • Palms open and upwards • Nodding • Body facing the sender/receiver • Good poise
Types of body language • Closed • Poor eye contact • Shaking head • Shrugging shoulders • Arms crossed • Legs crossed • Frown
Non-Verbal Communication • When a person is speaking, the words are revealing what they want the other person to hear. On most occasions the body will mimic the words, therefore the meaning will be obvious. But, there are times when the body will speak louder than the words, and will say something quite different to what is verbally spoken.
Non-verbal communicationBody Language • This means bodily actions, including stance, facial expression, which are used when communicating with another person. These actions may transmit feelings which are in conflict with the verbal message that has been sent.
Non-verbal communicationBody Language • Facial Appearance And Expression • Observe the face of a person – what do you see? The expression on a person's face is a good indicator of emotions —happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, interest and many more.
Non-verbal communicationBody Language • Eye contact • This is one of the most important nonverbal cues in our society. You are expected to meet other peoples’ gazes when you communicate.If you fail to do this, you can be interpreted as being deceptive, weak, bored or angry. There are actually complicated rules governing eye behaviour, with much variation on the direction of the gaze and the length of time you look at someone.
Non-verbal communicationBody Language • For example, you will look less frequently and for shorter periods if you are lying or if you are embarrassed or if you dislike the person you are talking to. The longer gaze indicates more intimacy and shows a sign of interest and attention. Depending on the context and relationship, it can be friendly or hostile.
Non-verbal communicationBody Language • While eye contact is supremely important in Western society, in some societies—most Asian societies, —it can be embarrassing and intrusive. If you are dealing with people from another culture you must be aware of their background and allow for the differences in their cultural behaviour.
Non-verbal communicationBody Language • Posture • Posture refers to 'how you position your body' often indicating your feelings or attitudes at the time. Posture can be open or closed (defensive).When you place some kind of barrier in front of your body-for example, folding your arms across your chest or crossing your legs or your ankles this may, indicate a closed posture.
Body Language • Describe someone with • A. Positive body language • B. Negative body language • What is it communicating about them?
Non-Verbal CommunicationSpace • Each of us has a different personal space requirement; this is because we have individual personalities and experiences. Individuals control the space around them, and this gives messages to others. Personal distance varies according to your culture and affinity with the other person. Certain situations and cultural backgrounds can influence the amount of personal space required.
What is ‘Personal Space’? • The distance required between two people when interacting. • The relationship between people determines how much personal space is required. • In general terms, the closer the relationship, the closer the personal space. • Personal space varies between cultures.
Space • How people use their personal space and that of others communicates a message. • If you tower over other people in a way that intrudes on their personal space you may cause discomfort and withdrawal
Non-Verbal CommunicationSpace • Research has shown that Australians speaking to acquaintances or work colleagues leave about an arm’s length of space and to friends and family about half an arm’s length. • In intimate relationships people allow direct and close contact.
Non-Verbal CommunicationGestures and mannerisms • Specific movements or gestures can indicate what a person wishes to convey to you. For example, a listener might nod their head during a conversation or a member of the police force might hold up a hand with the palm outwards to signify ‘stop!’ You might use a beckoning gesture to call a person to you or wave to say good-bye. There are many gestures we use often it is important to be aware that gestures have different meanings in other cultures.
Voice Tonality and Volume/ • Your voice is a reliable indicator of nationality, regional origin, social class, educational level, age and gender. It also discloses the emotional state of the speaker and conveys attitudes.
Non-verbal communication • Facial expressions – “the eyes are the window to the soul”. • We can often tell from a person’s face whether they are happy, sad, angry . • Dress and accessories – most enterprises will have standards of dress, whilst still allowing for individualism. We should be sensitive to others by avoiding: • Upsetting or alienating haircuts • Multi-coloured hair in a conservative workplace • Excessive body jewellery as it may be unsafe • Wearing political badges or clothing.
The visual element • The visual element refers to what the receiver sees when they are receiving our message. • The receiver interprets the visual element in conjunction with what they are hearing. • The visual element includes: • Personal presentation • Hygiene • Body language
Voice Tonality and Volume • Tone • The tone of voice should be mid-range and prevent a monotone effect • Volume • Loudness of your voice or your ability to project your voice. It should not sound harsh, nasal or out of breath. • Rate • How quickly you speak. A medium rate is recommended. • Pause • A useful tool to emphasise points. Constant pausing, however, may give the impression that you are not too sure of what you are saying. Avoid fill-in words, such as “you know” and “um” which can be indicative of a person who is unsure.
Communication • It requires: • the use of all our senses • displaying appropriate body language • use of tone, pitch in out voice • being an effective listener • providing feedback
Media for communication • Fax • Email • Simple written messages • Face to face • Telephone • Two- way communication systems • Standard forms and proformas
Communication media • What factors can influence the choice of media selected? • Technical and operational features • Access of the sender and receiver to the necessary equipment • Technical skills required to use the medium • The required format • Degree of formality required • Urgency and time frames
ACTIVITY • 1. Write down the names of three people with who you regularly communicate with and how you communicate? • What channels are used • Do you always understand what is communicated to you? • If not for how long do you go on till the message is understood? • 2. Communication Activity
Written communication • Effective communication is reliant on the words we choose, how we present them and the correct use of grammar. Written communication is only one option, and is can be used for items such as: • Itineraries, confirmation of bookings, personal or business letters, memorandums (memos), reports. • They can be sent via: • Email, facsimile, personal or business letter via post, simple written message etc.
Written communication • Whichever medium is used, good communication depends on several elements: • Clarity • Conciseness • Tone • Presentation • Correct language • Ability of the receiver.
Elements of good written communication • If any of the elements are missing, or could be misinterpreted, then written communication may not be the most appropriate way to communicate. • Clarity • Conciseness • Presentation • Language • Ability of the receiver