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Recruitment and selection in public service. Agata Austen-Tynda, PhD Chair in Public Management University of Economics in Katowice . Agenda . Precursors to Successful Recruitment and Selection The civil service staffing process (recruitment and selection) Public service motivation
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Recruitment and selection in public service Agata Austen-Tynda, PhD Chair in Public Management University of Economics in Katowice
Agenda • Precursors to Successful Recruitment and Selection • The civil service staffing process (recruitment and selection) • Public service motivation • Trends in recruitment and selection • Best practices in improving recruitment selection process
Definition Recruitment can be defined as: • all activities directed towards locating potential employees • the attraction of applications from suitable applicants. The aim of recruitment is to get the best person suited to the job based on objective criteria for a particular job
Why is recruitment and selection so important? • Reversing the Erosion of the Public Service Ethic • Personnel has long been perceived (and even defined) in terms of control, rather than service to the broader organization • Civic Culture and Tradition • Sound recruitment and selection practices also depend on complementary HRM systems
Why is recruitment and selection so important? Costs of mistakes: engaging incompetent, underqualified, unmotivated employees; employing another person requires repeating the process and generates costs Element of PR strategy
Rules of recrutiment and selection • Commonality • Openess • Competitiveness • Legality • Non-discrimination • Constancy of criteria • Neutrality • Objectivism • Transparency • Personal data security • Acting without delay
The civil service staffing process Planning and approval for staffing Position announcement Recruitment Selection of recruitment strategies Selection of „tests” Screen, interview, and checks (reference and other) Selection Final selection / Negotiate and hire Postselection considerations
Employer recruitment Elements influencing effectiveness of recruitment: • The breadth and quality of the process • The size of the labour pool and the location of jobs • Offered pay and benefits • Job quality and requirements of the position • Organizational image
Applicant’s perspective Avoiding cold, unthoughtful and dilatory treatment: • Timing to minimize anxiety • Feedback to optimize scarce job search resources • Information that makes distinctions • Enthusiastic, informative, and credible representatives
Planning and approval • Taking review of the need for the position to take into account the following: • strategic and operational plans for the organization • funding • current staffing structure • targets for diverse staffing profiles across all levels; • current staffing and skill levels; • anticipations in terms of new positions, restructured positions, eliminated positions • how the needs for the position might best be met
Planning and approval • Labour market survey: • trends in terms of availability, salaries, education levels
Position announcement Title and agency affiliation Salary range Description of duties and responsibilities Minimum qualifications Special conditions Application procedures Equal opportunity employment Classification Career potential Special benefits Time and place of applications
Capabilities • Technical skills – knowledge and abilities connected with particular job position • policy development and analysis, • improved systems for monitoring and evaluation and systems to improve financial management; • planning, • budgeting • reporting. • Other criteria: • Diversity and broad representation of minority and protected class • PSM
Manager Ministerial and Parliamentary Services (516394) • Applications Close:– Friday, 12 September 2008. • Salary:– $76,007 per annum. • Community and Health Services (Public Sector) Award, Administrative and Clerical Stream Level 10. • Permanent full-time day work. • Location:– Hobart. • Enquiries to Sharon Trueman, Department of Health and Human Services, phone (03) 6233 3761, email firstname.lastname@example.org. • You are encouraged to apply online (below) or forward your hard copy application quoting the vacancy number to: Recruitment Services, Human Resources, Department of Health and Human Services, GPO Box 125, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001.
Duties: • Manage the operations of the Ministerial and Parliamentary Services function including provision of high level co-ordination, information and advice services to the Department and to the Minister including the timely preparation and provision of high quality correspondence, briefings, speeches and other documents for and on behalf of the Minister.
Desirable Requirements: • High level analytical, conceptual, strategic, research and creative skills and the ability to understand the political, social and organisational environment in the context of the health and human services sector; • identify relevant issues and priorities and make sound judgements • high level interpersonal skills including written and oral communication skills, negotiation and conflict resolution skills; • the ability to develop, manage and maintain collaborative stakeholder and client networks; and to work collaboratively with senior executives and peers to achieve common goals and objectives.
Public service motivation • attraction to policymaking • commitment to the public interest • social justice • civic duty • compassion • self-sacrifice
Analysis: Candidates • Who is the ideal candidate for the agency? • What has attracted qualified candidates to the agency? • How did those qualified candidates learn about openings? • Why is the pool of qualified candidates shrinking? • What is the value system of the new generation and how can the agency package itself to show potential candidates that the agency has what they desire?
Recruitment strategies • Job posting • Electronic posting • Personal contact recruitment • Recruitment by mail • Head-hunting • Noncompetive recruitment • Develop a recruiting DVD
Recruitment strategies: Partnerships University/college/high school communications, art and computer science programs Student Interns Professional production companies and advertising agencies Other city departments or agencies to advertise
Analysis: recruitment strategies • What has worked or not worked in terms of recruitment strategies and advertising in the past? • Are signing bonuses or other incentives important? • How can current employees be ambassadors for the agency and help recruit qualified candidates? • What recruitment materials does the agency already have and how current are they? • Does the agency have a recruitment website and how many hits is it generating? • Has the agency used paid advertisement in the past and, if so, what value did it ad to the recruitment process? • What strategies is the agency using to attract the interest of grade school up to high school students?
Selection criteria • Electoral popularity – policy-making jobs • Patronage – designating officials or employees without a requirement for a formalized application process • Merit based-system – using processes that analyze job competencies and require open applicaton procedures • Seniority – internal candidates; provides sense loyalty • Representativeness – minorities should get positions in areas of underrepresentation
Selection criteria • Selection criteria should be expressed in terms of: • Essential – requirements that are critical to successful performance in the position without which a person could not be appointed; and • Desirable – requirements that would enable the person to perform at a higher level in the position, but without which the person could still be appointed. • The total number of essential and desirable criteria shall not exceed 10.
Selection criteria Selection criteria shall: • be written in simple and clear language; • be specific and not overlapping or repetitive; • be based on the real requirements of the position; • not be excessive in number (i.e. not more than 10 in total) • not discriminate unlawfully either directly or indirectly against applicants • not favour either internal or external applicants; and • be consistent with the classification standards of the position.
Screening • Retention Survey found that nationally small agencies took an average of 6.84 weeks to conduct the screening processes, while large agencies took an average of 11.51 weeks (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Hiring and Keeping Police Officers) • GOAL: reduce this time so that valuable candidates are still available
Screening Discriminating among the qualified and the unqualified Identifying most highly qualified candidates Screening particular candidates; results in offering position to the best candidate Confirming the qualifications and ability of the chosen candidate; it may include the first period of employment
Principles of the screening • A fair set of screening criteria • The criteria must be in line with the job content and appointment as well as advertised requirements • Applicants should be clear on the criteria that apply • The criteria should apply to all applicants in a consistent manner • Any waivers should be fully motivated and approved • Declarations should be made of whether any candidate is related to or friends of an official in the component where the vacancy exists • The various activities of the screening process should be documented and put on record
Initial reviewing and testing • Education and experience evaluations • Letters of recommendation • Self-assessment • General aptitude and trait test • Performance test for specific jobs
Reducing the pool: interview • Plan how it should proceed: persons, place, roles • Prepare list of written questions asked of all candidates • Use a work sample as part of the process • Critique or evaluate sth • Solve a problem • Deliver oral presentation, etc • Explain basic facts about the position • Use the job description and advertisement guides to ensure that the focus is on essential job functions
Reducing the pool: interview • Set up interviews in private job-settings where distractions are unlikely • Concentrate on listening to applicant’s answers and take notes during the interview • Be careful that no oral commitments or suggestions about employment prospects are made • Complete your evaluation notes when impressions are fresh
Reducing the pool: interview • Subjects to Avoid • Marital status • Children and other dependants • Religion • Politics • Ethnic origins
Final selection 1. Keep a list of all applicants considered for final selection. 2.Identify fair selection criteria for the final selection phase. 3.Ensure that the criteria are in line with the advertised requirements as well as the job content. 4. Ensure that each selection committee member is provided with all the relevant information pertaining to each short-listed applicant.
Final selection 5. Ensure that the interviews are conducted in a fair and effective manner and that each candidate is weighed comprehensively against the requirements as advertised. 6. Ensure that a comprehensive motivation is compiled in respect of all the applicants interviewed. 7. Ensure that all applicants are informed about the outcome of the final selection phase. 8. Ensure that all relevant information is put on record.
Closing selection • Closing selection • Phone call and further clarification • Letter of intent • Completing employment forms • Protocols may be available for intetested individuals • Number of candidates • Names, surenames and adresses of 5 top candidates • Recruitment and selection criteria • Justification of the decision
Trends in recruitment and selection Procedural Changes: • Eliminating arbitrary rules and regulations that restrict the choices of hiring managers and supervisors • Adopting flexible and appealing hiring procedures. • Screening applicants quickly • Validating entry requirements and examinations. • Instituting worker-friendly personnel policies, • Creating more flexible job descriptions.
Trends in recruitment and selection Improvements to the Recruitment and Selection Process: • The decentralization movement — "New Public Management" is known in many quarters as devolution, often characterized by the decentralization of HR responsibility. • Aggressive outreach efforts • Current employees as recruiters
Trends in recruitment and selection Use of Technology: • Many scholars believe that technology will be the most notable HRM trend of the next few decades • Many large public organizations use computer bulletin boards and electronic mail to improve recruitment process • Managers can have online access to applicants' test scores, qualifications and contact information • Software programs: to administer online examinations, track applicants, match resumes with skill sets, expedite background checks, and shepherd job candidates through a paperless staffing process
Best practices National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Problem: • A review of the hiring practices found that job announcements were filled with jargon, lots of facts and information, and extensive list of job duties which made it difficult to identify major features and selling points of the job. • Recruitment was passive… NNSA waited for applicants to apply.
Makeover: • A new look to convey the importance and excitement of their positions, as well as why they were a great place to work • Added photos to depict the unique work environment at NNSA. • Implemented an internet-based targeted recruitment strategy to identify potential candidates from job boards and other locations • They sent recruiters to fifteen universities in the South and West to recruit interns with an emphasis on diversity • The results produced 28 qualified candidates, up from three unqualified candidates in the previous recruitment process + 30 highly qualified interns
Best practices U.S. Department of Education Problem: • The hiring process took too long and did not always deliver qualified candidates. • Upon mapping out the hiring process, it was discovered that there were discrete steps with over 45 handoffs between different managers, administrative officers and HR specialists. • Managers were disengaged from the hiring process. Job descriptions were problematic. When managers could not find good candidates they had a tendency to sit on the list, until ultimately it was re-posted.
Makeover: • The hiring process was streamlined by eliminating redundancies and unnecessary steps resulting in a reduction of more than half of the steps…down to 53. • The automated process for assessing applicants has been overhauled and questions are more closely aligned with skills needed to be successful on the job. • The process of change has not been easy and has taken a commitment of time and effort on the part of leaders, HR, managers and others involved in the hiring process.
Best practices Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Problem: • Federal law changed requiring the agency to add 500 new positions. The length of time to complete the hiring process was long and the quality of candidates was lacking. • The automated staffing system in place was believed to be inadequate to meet the demands of the hiring needs. The agency wanted top talent and a faster process.
Makeover: • The agency started with an “end-to-end” mapping of the hiring process and identified both short and long term fixes. They used focus groups to document the process, identify roles and responsibilities, and assess obstacles. • Through the process the agency eventually reduced the number of steps in the hiring process by more than twenty percent. • Other key things they did included better marketing positions using visually appealing, plain-English announcements, proactively targeting qualified candidates via internet, resume databases and built tools to effectively screen applicants to ensure they were a good fit for the position. • They eventually assigned responsibility for the process to one person at the executive level.
10 golden rules of recruitment and selection Develop a Recruitment Plan Conduct Research Personalize the Recruitment Process Select and Train the Right People as Recruiters Build Strong Partnerships Develop an Employee Referral Program Improve the Selection Process Develop an Advertising Plan Develop an Internet Presence Employ Effective Recruitment Strategies
Agata Austen-Tynda, PhD Chair in Public Management University of Economics in Katowice email@example.com