Jane Klienert, Ph.D., CCC/SLP University of Kentucky/Division of Communication Disorders/College of Health Sciences • Beth Harrison, MRC, ABD University of Kentucky/Human Development Institute • Barney Fleming, Ph.D. University of Kentucky/Human Development Institute • Tracy Fisher, BA University of Kentucky/Human Development Institute • Kelly Manning, BHS University of Kentucky/Division of Communication Disorders
What is the Kentucky Youth Advocacy Project? • Two year project funded by Kentucky Council on Developmental Disabilities (KCDD) • Designed to provide students ages 8-18 years with individualized and group activities to support early development of self-advocacy skills • The University of Kentucky Department of Communications Disorders, College of Health Sciences and the University of Kentucky, Human Development Institute are responsible for implementing the project
Goals of the KYAP 1. Provide individual and group programming in self-advocacy to 100 children aged 8-18 with developmental disabilities in the eastern part of the state of Kentucky. Fifty to sixty children will participate each year for two years.
Goals of the KYAP 2. Provide teacher of students with developmental disabilities training in use of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI, Agran, Blanchard, & Wehmeyer, 2000) for individualized instruction of students
Goals of the KYAP 3. Provide mentors in self-advocacy, who themselves have a disability, to children with developmental disabilities.
Goals of the KYAP 4. Demonstrate that children/youth with significant disabilities and students who have or need augmentative communication can be successful self-advocates.
Goals of the KYAP 5. Provide children with disabilities a venue to share their accomplishments in self-advocacy.
Goals of the KYAP • 6. Develop and disseminate materials for use by teachers, children and families across Kentucky in the area of self-advocacy. This will be done via presentations and the development of a website on which such materials and student work samples can be displayed.
Why Teach Children/Youth with Disabilities Self-Advocacy Skills? Research has shown that: • individuals with disabilities who have strong self-determination/self-advocacy skills and those who utilize augmentative communication systems to express themselves have better post-school outcomes and reported quality of life (Hamm & Mirenda, 2006; Wehmeyer & Garner,2003; Wehmeyer & Schwartz, 1998). • young students, including those with autism, have been found to increase their participation in academic work and decrease negative behaviors when given opportunities for choice in the academic setting (Jolivette, Stichter, & McCormick, 2002; Moes, 1998). • children, as young as kindergarten age, have been shown to successfully utilize a self-determined learning model of instruction with teacher assistance (Palmer & Wehmeyer, 2003).
KYAP and the Kentucky Council on Developmental Disabilities Believe That… By beginning training in self-advocacy and self-determination at a young age, we give children with disabilities a head start on an improved quality of life, improved post-school outcomes, and increased participation in current academic programs
Program Elements What:I DID IT DAY When:Last month of the school year Who:Students with developmental disabilities and their teachers and/or SLPs who participated in the self-advocacy program. Who Else:Project staff, Mentors, Invited family and friends What:1:1 goal selection and training in self-advocacy and self-direction using the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction When:During the school year, after I CAN DAY. Who:students with disabilities and classroom teachers/SLPs Who Else:Regular technical assistance from project staff, mentors, Coop. Consultants What:I CAN DAY When:During the first full month of the school year. Who:Selected students with developmental disabilities who will participate in the self-advocacy training program Who Else:Mentors, project staff, teachers/ SLPS, Coop Consultants What:Teacher and SLP training on the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction When:At the beginning of the schoolyear Who:Training will be conducted by the project PI and Co-PI
Ongoing Tasks and Projects: • Video-recording of workshops and individual planning and implementation sessions • Weekly progress monitoring of each student’s goal on his/her checklist form • Visits for technical assistance by project staff to classrooms • Mentor contact via e-mail or in person • Development of materials to display student progress: e.g., Student-developed PowerPoint presentations for display at “I DID IT” day; video clips of students achieving their targets, photo displays of students’ achievements, “Mentor Messages” sent to the students during the year. • Development of a project web-site to include: materials developed for the project, messages from students and mentors, examples of student-developed plans, achievements, and presentations for the “I DID IT” day, short video clips of each stage of the project.
Who will the project work with? • The KYAP is happy for the opportunity to partner with Upper Cumberland and Kentucky Valley Special Education Cooperatives, and the Science Hill District to identify youth who may benefit from this project • The KYAP is focusing on children with disabilities in rural areas of Eastern Kentucky
What are the characteristics of students who may benefit? • Children/youth who have developmental disabilities and • are between the ages of 8 and 18 • may or may not be attending public school • have not had training in self-advocacy • may also have disabilities related to communication (and so are at even greater risk for decreased levels of self-advocacy and self-determination) • want to learn how to self-advocate!
The Self-Directed Learning Model of Instruction/Support The basic steps of this model include teaching students to: • Select a personal goal • Develop a plan to reach their goal • Identify potential barriers to attaining the goal • Develop a plan to deal with potential barriers • Share successes!
Roles and Responsibilities: School Personnel • Teachers and SLPs and other School Personnel will attend three workshops: • 1). a training on the Self Directed Model of Instruction to be held in October; • 2). An “I Can Do It” Day of training to be held in November, which will include student participants and mentors as well as the Teachers and SLPs; • 3). An “I Did It” Day, near the end of the 2006-2007 school year, which will include all project participants. • 4). receive on-site technical assistance visits from KYAP staff. • 5). Help identify any potential student participants who might not attend public school, but might be interested in the project.
Students will… • Student participants will attend two workshops: • 1). The “I Can Do It” Day of training to be held in November • 2). the “I Did It” Day, near the end of the 2006-2007 school year. • 3). Work with school personnel and/family to select, plan and work toward a personal goal.
Roles and Responsibilities • KYAP ~ • Provide reimbursement for substitute teacher expenses • Reimburse mileage, lodging, meals and other costs associated with travel to training events (including school bus travel) • Provide training materials • Provide training in the Self Directed Model of Instruction • Provide technical assistance to project participants • Develop a KYAP Implementation Package • Develop KYAP web site with training materials, protocols, etc.
Sequence of Activities for School Personnel • Participation in 1 day training on the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) • Identification of possible children to participate in the project • Attendance at the “I CAN DAY” program • Initiation of the SDLMI with students • Interaction with project staff and Mentors • Submission of materials for the website • Completion of the SDLMI with targeted children • Participation in the “ I DID IT DAY” program • Complete satisfaction survey and make suggestions for alteration of the program • Provide work samples of children for website. • Participate in presentations about the project (if interested in such activity)
Self-Determination and Self-Advocacy October, 2006
What are Developmental Disabilities ? • A severe, chronic disability • Attributable to a mental or physical disability or a combination of mental and physical disabilities • Is manifested before the person is (18) 22 years of age • Is likely to be life-long. • Results in substantial functional limitation in 3 or more areas of major life activity (Kleinert, H., presentation, 9-02)
Developmental Disabilities May Result In Deficits in… • Self-Care, • R/E Language, • Learning, • Mobility, • Capacity for Independent Living, • Economic Self-sufficiency, • Self-Direction OR Self-Determination. • (Kleinert, 9-02)
Developmental Disabilities • “Language and communication deficits are the most common result of a variety of disorders that affect mental development.” • (Paul, 2001, p. 97) • 90% of KY public school SLPS treat students with developmental disabilities AND • 66% of KY publics school SLPs’ report students with developmental disabilities as one of the two main categories in their caseloads. (Kleinert, 2003)
Successful Outcomes for Persons with Disabilities Are Characterized by: • What does the research show?
Successful Outcomes for Persons with Disabilities Are Characterized by: • Functional Skills • Strong Social Skills • Verbal Skills • Adequate Communication Skills • High Level of Self-Determination (Heward, 2003; Kleinert et al., 2002; Wehmeyer & Schwarz, 1998)
What is Self-Determination? • The ability to control the basic decisions and directions of one’s life • “The freedom to have choices and personally make decisions is cherished by people in all stages of life, yet it is a freedom that is typically denied to persons with disabilities.”(Falvey, l995, p. 229)
The Focus of Self-Determination The focus of self-determination is on a person’s ability to make choices about his/her life, to select goals, and to develop the initiative to go after these goals.
Self-Determination… • is especially important for students and youth with significant disabilities because for most of these individuals, their choices have not been made by themselves, but by parents, guardians, teachers, and service providers. • is not just a matter of lack of opportunity. (Kleinert & Kearns, 2001)
Unfortunately • Many students with significant disabilities do not have the skills and behaviors to assume that control over their lives and few educators and service providers know how to teach the components of self-determination. (Kleinert & Kearns, 2001) Tape
What Fosters Self-Determination? THE ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE CLEARLY Helps to Foster DEVELOPMENT OF A SELF-DETERMINED LIFE (Light, 2000; Kleinert, 2007)
Skills of Self-Determination • Choice-making • Self-initiation • Self-monitoring • Self-reinforcement • Goal setting • Asking questions • Planning one’s own schedule
Self-regulation • Persistence • Self-awareness (Agran et al., 2003; Kleinert et al., 2001; Wehmeyer, 1998)
How Can We Support Self-Determination ? • Opportunities for choice • Functional activities • Experiencing success • Self-advocacy • Making decisions re: their schedules at school, at home, work, leisure, in therapies, etc.. • (Proponents include: Wehmeyer, Brown, Field, Falvey, Kleinert and others)
Skills that contribute to successful outcomes for persons with disabilities include: • Strong communication skills + • Self-determination May result in Self-Advocacy
Educators, Therapists, School Personnel Often Focus on… Social and Language Skills such as: • requesting • refusing • indicating preferences • Initiating Executive Functions such as: • Goal Setting, • Planning, • Self-Monitoring, • Problem Solving
THESE ARE SELF-ADVOCACYSkills !!!! • We have the knowledge to help our students learn to advocate for themselves, but we need to teach self-advocacy in a systematic, consistent way • SDLMI provides a sequenced approach to teaching • We will also have large, group meetings and activities with “mentors” from the community to help our students learn “self-advocacy”
Self-Advocacy • IMPORTANT AT ALL AGES • Begins with the ability to make choices • Express preferences and dislikes • Realistically identify our own strengths and needs • Identify Barriers • Problem solve • Self-evaluate our progress • Revise our plans
Adaptations Adaptations can be developed for students who have difficulty: • Expressing themselves • Indicating preferences and dislikes • Making Choices • Self-monitoring • Problem solving
OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHOICE • BREAK INTO SMALL GROUPS. • PLEASE RECORD YOUR RESPONSES ON A FLIP CHART • PLEASE HAVE A RECORDER AND SPOKES PERSON FOR EACH GROUP
WHAT’S HAPPENING NOW: DECISIONS • 1 A. WHAT IF ANY DECISIONS DO YOUR STUDENTS CURRENTLY MAKE ABOUT WHAT THEY WILL WORK ON IN SCHOOL • 1 B. WHAT IF ANY DECISIONS DO YOUR STUDENTS CURRENTLY MAKE ABOUT WHAT THEY WILL DO OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL
WHAT’S HAPPENING NOW: CHOICES • 2. WHAT KINDS OF CHOICES DO THE STUDENTS GET TO MAKE NOW? WHAT COULD HAPPEN? • 3. GIVE EXAMPLES OF IN OR OUT OF SCHOOL ACTIVITIES IN WHICH STUDENTS COULD BE GIVEN MORE CHOICES
LET’S DISCUSS • EACH GROUP REPORTS
OUR STUDENTS MAY NOT HAVE MANY OPPORTUNITIES TO MAKE DECISIONS OR CHOICES ABOUT THEIR LIVES
WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT THAT? • HELP STUDENTS TO DEVELOP SELF-ADVOCACY • HOW???? • SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING MODEL OF INSTRUCTION/SUPPORT
Self Directed Learning Model of Instruction/Support(Agran, Blanchard, & Wehmeyer, 2003) Model Overview
SDLMI is Designed to: • Enable educators to teach students to become causal agents in their own lives • Teach students to self-direct learning • Enable students to become self-regulated problem solvers and learn to set their own transition goals • take action on those goals • Enable students to self-evaluate and adjust their goals or plans, as needed In effect, SDLMI helps students assume primary responsibility for their transition, content area choices, decisions and actions! Retrieved from the World Wide Web on 8/23/06 from http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/sped/tri/selfdeterminedmodel.htm
SLMI was developed… through a Field-Initiated Project awarded to The Arc of the United States with: • Michael Wehmeyer, Ph.D. as Principal Investigator • Susan Palmer, Ph.D. as Project Director • Martin Agran, Ph.D., Utah State University, Consultant • Dennis Mithaug, Ph.D., Columbia University Teachers’ College, Consultant • James Martin, Ph.D., University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Consultant Retrieved from the World Wide Web on 8/23/06 from: http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/sped/tri/selfdeterminedmodel.htm
Does it Work? Students who are taught using the SDLMI have shown: • Enhanced self-determination • Tended to achieve, or exceed, their individually set outcomes • Students report that: • the model allows them to take an active part in their school work • they enjoyed meeting and talking about their work with their teachers Retrieved from the World Wide Web on 8/23/06 from: http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/sped/tri/selfdeterminedmodel.htm