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Food Defense. In a Food Preparation and Service Setting. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org. On Sept 11, 2001 the U.S. was attacked.
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Food Defense In a Food Preparation and Service Setting Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.
The U.S. government has declared the food and agriculture sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.
What Type of Harm Could Occur? Intentional delivery of a harmful biological or chemical agent to the food supply system could cause: • Physical harm (illness or mortality) • Economic disruption • Direct • Indirect • International • Political unrest • Psychological harm – loss of confidence in food supply
Will this Effect Missouri? • Missouri Restaurant Industry: • Over 13,000 locations in the state • 2007 projections • employment = 273,500 • sales = $8.1 billion • Each $1 spent in MO restaurants = $1.38 in sales for other industries • Each $1 million spent in MO restaurants = 43.7 jobs
Case Study: Polonium 210 • November 23, 2006 Alexander Litvinenko died of acute radiation poisoning due ingesting a large dose of Polonium 210. • 1st person to die of acute α-particle radiation effects • Most likely mixed into tea • Highly toxic • Difficult to find and identify
Grapes of Wrath • A terrorist group claimed to have contaminated Chilean grapes with cyanide. • Fruit was removed from U.S. stores, consumers stopped purchasing Chilean fruit. • Only 2 grapes were found to have possible contamination. • The threat caused $200-300 million in damages.
No Bleu Cheese Please! • In 1984, members of an Oregon cult intentionally contaminated restaurant salad bars with Salmonella bacteria. • They were attempting to influence an election. • 751 individuals became ill, 45 were hospitalized.
What is Food Defense? Food Defense focuses on security, protecting the food supply from intentional contamination. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.
Is Food Defense Different than Food Safety? • Food Defense focuses on protecting the food supply fromintentional contamination. • Food Safety (HACCP) focuses on protecting the food supply from unintentional contamination. It can help with, but is not a substitute for food defense.
Who Might Intentionally Contaminate an Food Service Facility? • Disgruntled employee/former employee • Contract or temporary employee • Members of terrorist or extremist groups • Truck driver • Affiliate of a competing facility • Visitor to facility
Rats! • Businessman poisons food of rival noodle shop with Tetramine. • Poisoning sickens 400 kills 49 (soldiers and school children) • Owner of rival Kindergarten contaminates lunch with Tetramine • Poisoning effects 70 kindergarteners and 2 teachers Rival Chinese Businesses use banned rat poison containing Tetramine to harm a competitor’s business
Biological Agents: Injure by causing disease, or producing toxin. Chemical Agents: Injure through toxicity to biological systems, or chemical burns to tissue. Radiological Agents: Injure externally with radiation burns and potentially deadly acute radiation sickness. Injure internally by causing damage to internal organs. Potential Contaminants
Biological Agents of Concern • Category A: Easily to use, high death rate • Bacillus anthracis(Anthrax) • Clostridium botulinumtoxin(Botulism) • Category B: Moderately easy to use, moderate illness, low death rate, hard to diagnose • E. coli O157:H7 • Salmonella spp.(Salmonellosis) • Shigella spp.(Dysentery) • Not categorized:Naturally occurring, can cause symptoms in humans. • Listeriamonocytogenes(Listeriosis) • Campylobacterjejuni Bacillus anthracis Clostridium botulinum E. coli Campylobacter jejuni
Chemical Agents • Biotoxin (Ricin or Abrin) disrupt protein synthesis • Aconitine • α-Amanitin • Metal (Arsenic) damages blood cells • Blood Agent (Cyanide) disrupts oxygen usage. • Nerve Agent (Sarin) prevents nerves from controlling muscle contractions
Radiological Agents • Polonium 210 • Plutonium • Uranium 238 (U-238)
What Makes an Attractive Agent of Intentional Contamination? • Long Incubation period • Highly effective (Potent, toxic, virulent) • History of use (increases future chance of use • Available (easily produced in adequate quantity) • Low traceability
What Do Consumers Think About Food Defense? Following several major food recalls in the US, consumer surveys were conducted. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.
Consumer Confidence in Food Defense Systems After National Food Recalls Stinson et al., 2008
Who Do Consumers Believe is Responsible for Food Defense? Stinson et al., 2008
Who do Consumers Believe Should Pay for Food Defense? Stinson et al., 2008
Products That Consumers Believe Most Likely to be Intentionally Contaminated Stinson et al., 2008
Food Defense Plan Defense plans are encouraged but not required for farms and most food establishments. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.
Facilities Currently Required to Participate in Food Defense All vendors providing food for USDA feeding programs must now be in compliance with the Food Defense System.
Four Steps for Developing a Food Defense Plan • Assess the vulnerabilities • Write a plan • Evaluatethe plan • Maintain the plan
Assessthe vulnerabilities • Gather a team of key personnel to make the assessment. • Use FDA Guidelines: Guidance for Industry Retail Food Stores and Food Service Establishments: Food Security Preventive Measures Guidance http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/guidance.html. • Think like someone who wants to harm your operation. • Look for areas where contamination would be spread through normal operations and areas that are not frequently observed.
Countermeasures Countermeasures are actions taken to shield vulnerable areas, reducing the risk of intentional contamination. Countermeasures are actions taken to shield vulnerable areas, reducing the risk of intentional contamination.
Areas to Consider for Countermeasure Development • Procedures • Facility • Technology • Personnel
Countermeasures for Procedures • Workforce • Shipping and Receiving • Visitors and Customers • Marketing
Countermeasures for Facility • Light it • Lock it • Limit Access
Writethe Plan • Develop a countermeasure to defend each vulnerable point identified as high risk. • Create a written plan including those countermeasures that are reasonable for the situation. • Identify the individual who will implement the countermeasure. • Set a timeline to implement the countermeasure.
What if the Food Supply is Intentionally Contaminated? Should such an event occur a timely and efficient response will be critical to minimizing the damage.
Develop a Written Response Plan • Plan for handling of contaminated product • Emergency Planning • Facility Map • Emergency Contact Phone List • Visitor Log • Supplier/Customer Contacts • Employee Emergency Information
Handling of Contaminated Product • Hold any food you suspect may be contaminated • Retained or recalled product will need to be stored prior to disposal • Storage will need to be separate from non contaminated product • Prepare a plan for disposal, to be reviewed by FDA and state authorities • FDA will witness the execution of the plan
Facility Map • Name, address, and phone of owner/proprietor • Relationship of the facility to adjacent properties and/or structures. • Road access including transportation routes • Perimeter boundaries, include fences, and gates (with dimensions)
Facility Map continued • Buildings, outbuildings, doors, windows, AC/heating, ventilation • Utilities (water, gas, electric, phones) location and shutoff • Septic System and drainage areas with direction of flow • Web sites such as Google Earth www.earth.google.com
Facility Map Owner : Hal Hashslinger 1745 Crepe Circle Cookstown, MO 65xxx Exterior door H2O H2O H2O H2O Exterior door Interior door Interior door Interior door Interior door Exterior door Utility shut offs H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O
References • www.fsis.usda.gov • www.cfsan.fda.gov • www.bt.cdc.go • www.morerestaurants.org