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Expectancy-Value Theory

Expectancy-Value Theory

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Expectancy-Value Theory

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  1. Expectancy-Value Theory DovanRai

  2. Outline • Background: motivational theories • Expectancy-Value theory • Developmental study • Group differences • Gender • Ethnicity

  3. Motivational theories • Biological approach • Behavioristic approach • Cognitive approach • Expectancy-value theory

  4. Behavioristic approach vs. cognitive approach Social World Behavior Stimuli response Rewards and punishment Behavioristic Theory Cognition Behavior Social World Cognitive Theory

  5. Expectancy-value theory JacquelynneEccles (1983)

  6. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Expectancy

  7. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Expectancy Belief and judgment about capabilities to perform a task successfully

  8. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Relative attractiveness of succeeding or failing on a task Expectancy Belief and judgment about capabilities to perform a task successfully

  9. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Importance Interest Utility cost Task Value Expectancy

  10. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Behavior Expectancy

  11. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Behavior Expectancy B = f(E,V)

  12. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Expectancy B = f(E,V)

  13. A personal example Artist High value Low expectancy

  14. A personal example Engineer High expectancy Low value

  15. A personal example Designer Balance of Expectancy and value

  16. Too simple function? Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Expectancy B = f(E,V)

  17. Let other parameters load Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Task Value Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Perception and interpretation Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Expectancy

  18. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Affective memories Task Value Perception and interpretation Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Expectancy

  19. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Affective memories Task Value Perception and interpretation Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence • Goals • Self-schemas • Perception of task difficulty Expectancy

  20. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Affective memories Task Value Perception and interpretation Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence • Goals • Self-schemas • Perception of task difficulty Expectancy

  21. Expectancy-value theory Cognition and beliefs Achievement Behavior Social World Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Affective memories Task Value Perception and interpretation Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence • Goals • Self-schemas • Perception of task difficulty Expectancy B = f(E,V)

  22. Outline • Background: motivational theories • Expectancy-Value theory • Developmental study • Group differences • Gender • Ethnicity

  23. Development study – Wigfield and Ecceles • Change in children’s expectancy , value and achievement behavior

  24. Development study

  25. Empirical findings • Competence beliefs and task values are distinct constructs even in early elementary students (factor analysis) • Competence belief and expectancy for success is less distinct • Competence beliefs predict children’s subsequent grades beyond that predicted by their previous grades (structural equation modeling) • Task values changes with age. Task value for math decreases along middle school.

  26. Empirical validity of theoretical model Factor analysis: finding latent nodes I did not know that factor analysis is such a useful tool to make empirical validation of such theories and models.

  27. One *cute* finding • 4-5 year old children’s expectancies for success are quite optimistic

  28. One *cute* finding • 4-5 year old children’s expectancies for success are quite optimistic (even if they repeatedly failed at the task)

  29. One *cute* finding Two explanations: Children’s expectancy may reflect the outcome they like to achieve rather than the reality of their performance Higher learning curve and higher optimism realistic

  30. Outline • Background: motivational theories • Expectancy-Value theory • Developmental study • Group differences in expectation and values • Gender • Ethnicity

  31. Why there are few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Genetic difference Social factors Feminists

  32. Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Genetic difference Social factors Feminists Expectancy-value theory

  33. Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Genetic difference Social factors IDENTITY Expectancy-value theory

  34. Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs expectancy Social factors Genetic difference value Expectancy-value theory

  35. Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs expectancy Social factors Genetic difference value Expectancy-value theory

  36. Feedback loop Self-concept performance

  37. Feedback loop: chicken egg problem Self-concept Social world competence performance

  38. Amy Chua paradigm (Joe Beck) Self-concept Self-concept performance performance Helicopter mom Tiger mom

  39. Ethnic differences in task values African American students, compared to white students have poorer academic achievement and general economic disadvantage

  40. Ethnic differences in task values African American students have poorer academic achievement and general economic disadvantage Hypothesis They have lower expectancy for success and lower self-concept of ability.

  41. Ethnic differences in task values African American students have poorer academic achievement and general economic disadvantage Studies They have higher self-concept and higher expectancy.

  42. Achievement <-> self-perception of ability This link is not as strong in African American students as much as in Caucasians.

  43. Adaptive (high motivation to maintain engagement despite poor performance) • Self-protective (protect their self esteem) • Poor judgment cause of poor performance • Different social comparison group

  44. Motivational dynamic can be different for African American students; their self-concept not strongly based on achievement as they would devalue academic achievement.

  45. Graham (1994) notes that these explanations are not suggested in the motivational literature.

  46. He suggests that rather than formulating a different psychology for minority student achievement, more minority students should be included in future motivation research and samples

  47. Gender and ethnic differences Nominate people they admired and respected

  48. Gender and ethnic differences Nominate people they admired and respected

  49. Gender and ethnic differences Nominate people they admired and respected Devalue achievement Stereotype threat

  50. Questions and comments