Mine, Mine, Mine By: Staci D. Rachel J. Kristen A. Thais D.
A look at the life of miners • http://youtu.be/hyK5MErw3r4
Coal Miners Prayer Each dawn as we rise, lord we know all too well, We face only one thing – a pit filled with hell. To scratch out a living the best that we can, But deep in the heart, lies the soul of a man. With black covered faces, and hard calloused hands, We work the dark tunnels, unable to stand. To labour and toil as we harvest the coal, We silently pray “Lord, please harvest our souls.”
Definition of mining • Definition: Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam.
What is mined? • Materials recovered by mining include bauxite, coal, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, iron, precious metals, lead, limestone, magnesite, nickel, phosphate, oil shale, rock salt, tin, uranium and molybdenum.
Leaders and innovators in mining • Archimedes – invented the Archimedes screw • Charles Steen • Daniel Guggenheim • Ed Schieffelin • George Stephenson – inventor of the Geordie lamp • Henry Beecher Dierdorff – American inventor of mining equipment
Continued… • Herbert Hoover • Horace Austin Warner Tabor • Humphry Davy – inventor of the Davy lamp • Meyer Guggenheim • Paddy Martinez • William Boyce Thompson • William Reid Clanny – inventor of the first safety lamp
The trouble with mining: • Gold, silver, coltan, copper: metals and minerals are processed in all sorts of ways into products we daily use. • Impact of mining on local communities is immense. • The technology applied for extraction of minerals uses extremely toxic. • The local population does not agree with these kind of practices and usually revolt. • The arguments of these local communities against the large scale mining industry can be summed up as follows: • Mining concessions are granted without participation of local communities and their traditional leaders, and thus are essentially illegal. • These mines contribution little of not at all to development of the local economy of these communities. • Mining companies are a big threat to the environment and the existence of agriculture, due to pollution of water sources and devastation of existing ecosystems. • Mining activity contributes to loss of culture, divides communities and increases the gap between the rich and poor.
Facts: • The average coal miner is 45 years old and has 20 years of experience. • The average weekly wage for a miner in Kentucky is $751.30 • It is estimated that Black Lung disease affects 2.8 percent of coal miners. About 0.2 percent of coal workers have scarring on the lungs, the most severe form of the disease. Each year, close to 400 miners die from black lung disease.
Historical Background: • Early Egyptians mined for copper 3,400 years ago • Coal mining developed in the U.S. during the Industrial Revolution. • 1849 California Gold Rush began • 1859 oil production in US began
Social Consequences: • Jobs • Hope for development • “Resource Curse” • Violence against civilians
Political Consequences: • The country of Africa is known for mining an abundance of diamonds. The problem is that because so many diamonds are mined, many corporate consumers have no clue where the diamond comes from making it nearly impossible to confirm where exactly the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) stands. • The Kimberley Process- the Kimberley Process is something that was supported by many nations to ensure that the diamonds they were purchasing weren’t “Blood Diamonds.” Blood Diamonds are diamonds found by rebel groups or anti-government groups who use the trade money to buy weapons and recruit more people for their groups. Thought of in 1998, the nations met and agreed that every diamond exported must be certified conflict free, and which was successfully established in 2003. Of course some diamonds are still smuggled in and sold without being certified by the Kimberley Process. • By that meaning that so many problems related to diamond mining exist in Congo, Africa. The main problem is that military groups are rebelling against government officials thus mining their own diamonds and trading them with other countries for weapons, thought to be used to assist in the Angola Civil War.
Facts: • Because Angola contains the world’s largest resources of diamonds and petroleum, it can be the wealthiest country, but because of the war for Angola Liberation, the fight prevents the country to further develop economically. • The MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberations of Angola) of Angola is named President Dos Santos and the UNITA leader is named Dr. Jonas Savimbi. (UNITA- National Union for the Total Independence of Angola). These two people are responsible for the millions of land mines within the country.
Economic Consequences: • The costs and profits of mining are not fairly distributed. • Private enterprises make the profits. • The local economies are seriously disturbed. • Pollution of the environment means a serious threat to the ecosystem and the health of the local communities. • On a global level it is unjust for the local communities.
Who suffers from mining: • The environment in the communities around the mines due to pollution. • Miners who suffer health issues and dangerous conditions.
Who benefits from mining: • Local Community • Jobs • Workers bond over time • Home Country’s Economy • Increased government revenue due to mining • Attracts businesses • Mining Company • Huge profits • Able to exploit mines • “Stabilization Clauses”
Conditions that promote problem: • The pure fact that this country produces oil, gas, and diamonds pretty much says that they have say in how they handle their trade. Unfortunately because they have such wealthy resources many groups use this advantage to trade with other countries for weapons and money. On the downside of that, they use far more resources to fund war then they are gaining from it. • Because so many conditions have been put on diamonds such as the Kimberley Process and the certification of diamonds, many workers are working harder to find more blood diamonds to sell and make money. The blood diamond exportation went from %15 of diamonds exported being blood diamonds to only .02%. Unfortunately, those people being held captive by refugee groups are still working hard to find diamonds illegally and risking their safety and lives to satisfy their leaders. • A way that African government are following to prevent diamond smuggling is for every diamond sold outside of the country there needs to be proof of foundation and proof of purchase.
Possible Solutions: • Mincom Intelligent Mining Solution • Mincom Ellipse • Mincom Mobility • Mincom Critical Inventory Optimization • Mincom LinkOne • Mincom Axis B2B
As an individual: • Everyone is affected because we all use materials derived from minerals that are mined.
The San Antonio community: • Quarries • 14 in San Antonio • Investment in economy • Truckers • Construction
The Texas region: • Living in Texas my whole life, I’ve rarely traveled the entire state. Only nearby cities like Corpus Christi and Austin. Of course I can’t forget the Tanger Outlets in San Marcus. These outlets have a variety of diamond stores, and well I can’t lie and say I haven’t taken a peek at a few diamonds or two. Viewing commercial after commercial, prices seem to rise in the diamond industry and I can’t imagine how high the prices must be up north in New York and surrounding areas. Knowing that the diamonds we buy from Zales, Kay Jewelers, Jared go through a process to get to these stores makes me wonder how much each diamond is worth without all the expenses of importing, certifying, shaping and creating unique jewelry. Because not many Texans seem to realize that searching for diamonds is life risking, they don’t seem to care as to how they get diamonds, just that they get them.
The nation as a whole: • Mining produces three types of mineral commodities (metals, industrial minerals, and fuels) that all countries find essential for maintaining and improving their standards of living.
The global community: • Compared to Texans, the global community seems to want to help out by enforcing the Kimberley Process, yet they also want to buy diamonds the cheapest possible to make as much as a profit possible. Corporations must keep in mind that the diamonds they are selling to their consumers can be backed by certifications, raising prices in purchasing diamonds for both the big corporations and consumers themselves.
Coal miners song • http://youtu.be/Zv2uA5QEbNwb
References: • http://www.coal-miners-in-kentucky.com/ • http://youtu.be/Zv2uA5QEbNwb • http://youtu.be/hyK5MErw3r4 • http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/congo.htm • http://www1.american.edu/projects/mandala/TED/ice/ANGOLA.HTM • http://www.globalwitness.org/campaigns/conflict/conflict-diamonds/kimberley-process • http://web.ebscohost.com.libweb.lib.utsa.edu/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=108&sid=e1671093-0cd6-4229-9914-8c9f7f4c0b01%40sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=21417164 • http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0730/p07s02-woaf.html • http://catapa.be/en • http://www.mincom.com/en/solutions/industry/mining.aspx • http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10318&page=70
References for pictures: • http://www.phongpo.com/2010/07/07/western-kentucky-mine-roof-plan-already-in-fatal-accident/underground-coal-mining/ • http://www.google.com/imgres?q=coal+mining&um=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbnid=v07VVcR_YeDOhM:&imgrefurl=http://www.frozentoothpaste.com/2007/09/13/fossil-fuels-are-dangerous/&docid=V0JiVA-8pi6dhM&w=300&h=453&ei=zOGBTqaEKtC2tgecyfDtAQ&zoom=1&biw=1280&bih=843&iact=rc&dur=405&page=2&tbnh=145&tbnw=102&start=21&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:21&tx=36&ty=70 • http://www.old-picture.com/american-history-1900-1930s/miners-Coal.htm • http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/immigrant-children-1.htm • http://englishrussia.com/2006/09/20/a-miners-village/ • http://www.undergroundminers.com/ • http://www.benhamky.org/Museum/ • http://ohiodnr.com/mineral/history/tabid/17883/Default.aspx
Materials: • Each group gets 1 chocolate chip cookie, a toothpick, a paper clip, and a sheet of graph paper. • Place the cookie on the graph paper and trace around the cookie. • Figure out who is the youngest person in your group- this person will be the head of the mining company and everyone else will be the workers.
Activity: • Your group is a major mining company that has decided to mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Your company is mining in the village of Musheko, which is near the Kahuzi-Biega National Park. The villagers are excited for the mine, as they want the jobs and development it will bring to their village. Your company’s goal is to meet the expectations of the villagers, and still make a profit so that you’ll have the opportunity to mine again. So get all the diamonds (chocolate chips) out of the cookie that you can, but be careful not to get any crumbs outside of the line you drew-that means devastating pollution to the village of Musheko.
Rules: • The head of the company cannot touch the mine, only direct the workers in what to do. • No one can touch the cookie with your hands, you can only use the tools you buy. • Each group starts out with $200,000 after buying tools to mine with • Each chocolate chip that you dig out of the cookie is worth $400,000. • You have 4 minutes to mine your cookie. • Each square of graph paper that has crumbs in it at the end of 4 minutes costs you $250,000 to clean up the pollution you caused.
How much did you make? • Start with $200,000 • Add $400,000 for each chocolate chip that you mined from the cookie Add that up…. • Then subtract $250,000 for each square that crumbs were in, as to pay for pollution clean up • The head of the company can now take whatever is left and pay your workers however you see fit • The leftovers is what the company made
Questions to think about? • Did you end up polluting the surrounding areas? • Were you thinking more about finding chocolate chips, or keeping the surrounding areas clean? • Is it possible to both make a profit and treat your workers the right way? • How did your mine benefit or harm the village of Musheko?