Chapter 14: Phrases Property of Minooka Community High School 14a. What’s a phrase? 14b. Prepositional Phrase 14c. Adjective Phrase 14d. Adverb Phrase Verbals & Verbal Phrases 14e. Participle 14f. Participial Phrase 14g. Gerund 14h. Gerund Phrase 14i. Infinitive 14j. Infinitive Phrase 14k. Appositive 14l. Appositive Phrase
14a. What is a phrase? A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. Side Note: A clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb.
14b. Prepositional Phrases • A prepositional phrase is a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. • EX: A koala is a marsupial, a mammal with an external abdominal pouch. • Koalas, along with several other marsupials, are native to Australia. Note: Don’t confuse prepositional phrase beginning with “to” with an infinitive (to be or to learn).
14c. Adjective Phrases • A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase. • An adjective phrase tells what kind or which one. • EX: We ordered a dish of salsa and a basket of tortilla chips. • EX: The picture of their candidatein today’s newspaper is not at all flattering.
14d. Adverb Phrases • A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase. • EX: The mole burrowed under the lawn. • EX: The child speaks quite clearly for a two-year-old. Adverb phrases tell: when, where, why, how, or to what extent (how much, how long, or how far).
Verbals and Verbal Phrases. Verbals: formed from verbs and are used as adjectives, nouns, or adverbs. The three kinds of verbals are participle, the gerund, and the infinitive. Verbal Phrases: consists of a verbal and its modifiers and complements.
14e. Participle • A verb form that can be used as an adjective • EX: What is the temperature of the boiling water? • Present participles end in –ing. • EX: The smiling graduates posed for the photographer. • Most past participles end in –d or –ed. Some are formed irregularly. • EX: For dinner we prepared grilled salmon, baked potatoes, and tossed salad.
14f. Participial Phrase • Consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective. • EX: Climbing the tree, the monkey disappeared into the branches. • EX: We watched the storm blowing eastward. • EX: Voted back into office, the mayor thanked her supporters.
14g. Gerund • A verb form that ends in –ing and that is used as a noun. • EX: Reading will improve your vocabulary. • EX: One popular sport is swimming. • EX: Both Dad and Mom enjoy cooking together.
14h. Gerund Phrase • Consists of any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a noun. • EX: The sudden shattering of glass broke the silence. • EX: She enjoys hiking in the mountains occasionally.
14i. Infinitive • A verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with “to”. • EX: His dream is to travel. • EX: She is the one to ask. • EX: Grandmother is coming to visit. NOTE: The word “to” plus a noun or a pronoun= a prepositional phrase, not an infinitive.
14j. Infinitive Phrase • Consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. The entire phrase can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. • EX: To hit a curveball solidly is very difficult. • EX: She wants to study marine biology. • EX: His efforts to trace his ancestry led to greater appreciation of his heritage. • EX: I found his explanation difficult to accept.
14k. Appositives • A noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it. • EX: My cousin Brian is my best friend. • EX: Sal, a cautious driver, has never had an automobile accident.
14l. Appositive Phrases • Consists of an appositive and any modifiers it has • EX: The Smiths live on Milner Lane, a wide street lined with beech trees. • EX: Mount Kosciusko, a part of the Australian Alps, is the highest peak in Australia.