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APA Basics for FSEHS Students

APA Basics for FSEHS Students

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APA Basics for FSEHS Students

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  1. APA Basics for FSEHS Students

  2. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Hot off the press in 2009!

  3. http://www.schoolofed.nova.edu/arc

  4. What Students Need to KnowAbout APA Title: by Laura Lucio Ramirez CUR 526 24022 Educational Research for Practitioners Student’s NameCourse code and CRN: Title of course: Institution Month day, year Nova Southeastern University April 1, 2009

  5. Title: Student’s Name Info on Applied Dissertation Institution Year

  6. Page #s • 12 pt font • Times New Roman • Double spaced • Indented • Left justified • No underlining • You can nowuse bullets • Bold forheadings. 2 APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions.  APA does permit single spacing within references but double spacing between references (see Publication Manual, p. 323). Major headings are centered. The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words. Articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions, however, are not capitalized (Falcao, 2005). Other issues also need to be considered. Students and teachersalike need to pay attention to using subheadings. For example,

  7. FSEHS • does • not use • running • heads • 1 inch margins 2 APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions.  APA does permit single spacing within references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326 of the Publication Manual.) Major headings are centered. The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words. Articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions, however, are not capitalized (Falcao, 2005). Other issues also need to be considered. Students and teachersalike need to pay attention to using subheadings. For example,

  8. Headings Title of Paper Use Level 1 Headings Level 2 – Flush Left, Boldfaced, Upper andLower Case Side Heading APA manual, p. 62; See also sample paper p. 54

  9. Title Level 2 APA Headings APA headingsshould not be confused with Word’s formatting levels. 2 APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions.  APA does permit single spacing within references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326 of the Publication Manual.) Issues to Consider Major headings require specific formatting: (a) The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words; (b) articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not capitalized; and (c) the heading is not italicized. Formatting of Paper There are exceptions for dissertation. Other issues also need to be considered. Students and teachers need to know how to use Level 1 Issues to Consider Formatting of Paper

  10. Spacing after Punctuation:Use the find and replace feature Students’ scores improved. The study demonstrated that … Brown, J. D. (2003). Pitfalls of formatting.Reading Teacher,24(3), 22-24.

  11. When to Cite • Ideas, theories, or research that directly influenced your work. • Key background information, support or dispute your theory, or offer critical definitions or data. • Document all facts and figures that are not common knowledge. • For class assignments, use 1 or 2 of most representative sources for each key point. • Literature reviews include more exhaustive lists of citation. See APA (6th ed.), p. 169

  12. Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism • Using another person’s ideas or words without giving them proper credit. • Can be grounds for dismissal • Using direct quotes and paraphrasing

  13. Two types of in-text citations • paraphrase • direct quote • APA uses the author – date • citation system

  14. Paraphrased text citation: McPherson (2007) raised issues of motivation in reading. Paraphrased text citation: Another study raised issues of motivation in reading (McPherson, 2007).

  15. Note the correct punctuation: Research confirmed the results of cloning(Fink, 2007). A couple of experiments(Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956)found.... The website did not support the data(Wienhorst, n.d.) . n.d. – no date See APA manual, pp. 174-178, 185

  16. Basic Citation Styles Citations in text: Quinlan,Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) stated Quinlan et al. (2008) observed (et al. is used after first use when there are three or more authors)Parenthetical citations in text: (Quinlan, Jones, Byron, & Montgomery, 2008) (Quinlan et al., 2008) One work by six or more authors: Wienhorst et al. (2009) (Wienhorst et al., 2009) Always use et al. for six or more authors. See APA manual, p. 177

  17. Paraphrasing “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system”(Smith, 2008, p. 212). Direct quote APA manual, pp. 170-171

  18. More than 50% reworded Paraphrasing “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system”(Smith, 2008, p. 212). Direct quote Paraphrased When the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law in January of 2002 by President Bush, the law provided the most all-encompassing reform in education the United States in decades and provided a foundation for strengthening educational policy at the national level for years to come (Smith, 2008). APA manual, pp. 170-171

  19. 46% of Paper Plagiarized Found UsingTurnitin Words in blue were taken verbatim from one source. • Researchers have noted adjustment problems during a rising ninth grader’s transition period. The rising ninth graders’ grade point averages and attendance tend to decrease. The upcoming freshman experience feelings of connectedness, and co-curricular participation. They also experience an increase in anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. So far, transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial. Dropout There is a high school dropout epidemic in America. Each year, almost one-third of all public high school students – and nearly one-half of all blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans – fail to graduate from public high school (Bridgeland,Dilulio, Jr., and Morison, 2006). The most common reasons for dropping out of high schoolare attitude towards school, poor school performance, and poor relationship with teachers. Dropouts also had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environment (Lan & Lanthier, 2003). Research also revealed that high school students often consider the social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficult part of transition (Akos, 2004). Words in red were taken verbatim from a second source. The original idea was from Lan & Lanthier, but the source of this “paraphrase” was not cited. (Lan & Lanthier, 2003). Only a few words were paraphrased.

  20. Secondary Sources Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) … Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993.) Models of reading aloud. Psychological Review, 100(3), 589-608. Text citation: List the primary source in the reference list entry:

  21. Text citation with direct quote: McPherson (2007) coined the phrase “goblet of motivation” (p. 71). The phrase that aptly describes the impact on reading is “goblet of motivation” (McPherson , 2007, p. 71).

  22. When using a direct quote, provide the page #: “… victims of cyberterrorism” (Windhorst, 2004, p. 237) . Krankenstein (2006) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). Lynch (2007) stated, “The findings are not valid” (p. 22) but later maintained that other studies reached different conclusions. • See APA, Chapter 6, p. 171

  23. Text Cites of Electronic Resources In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be “based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning” (Methods section, para. 7). “The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu” (Pival,Falcao, & Quinlan, 2009, “Problems with Qualitative Research,” para. 5). Use name of section. Use shortened title in quotation marks. See APA (6th ed.), p. 172

  24. APA manual, p. 92 Direct quote for less than 40 words: The abstract is a one-paragraph summary or overview of the paper and “should summarize the essential content of the paper” (Tunon, 2009, p. 34). Block quote (40 words or more): Note where the periods go! Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Strunk (1922) stated: Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book, journal, brochure, or report when used in the body of the paper.  Use a short title in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized in the reference list. (p. 342) Callahan (2001), however, says …. (NOTE: FSEHS uses single space, but APA uses double spacing.)

  25. Groups as Authors Citations in text: American Psychological Association [APA] (2009) stated… APA (2008) observed… Parenthetical citations in text: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) (APA, 2008) NOTE: Always use abbreviation after it is introduced in the text. Do not switch back and forth between the full name and the abbreviation. See APA manual, p. 177

  26. Citing sevral resources Citing Several Resources Within Same Parentheses A couple of experiments (Jordan, 2004, 2007)found…. A couple experiments (Eifrig & Gehring, 1976; Skinner, 1956)found.... Several studies (Department of Defense, 2002, 2008, in press-a; Smith & Jones, 2009a, 2009b) See APA manual, pp. 176-178.

  27. When to Use Ampersands and Commas • Stating author names vs. citing author names QuinlanandBardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education. but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan &Bardeen, 2007). • Three or more authors cited, use commas Researchers (Cresswell, Borg, & Allsop, 2004) have found that this is true. In reference list Quinlan, N., & Bardeen, A. (2007). Information literacy in higher education. College and Research Libraries, 34(3), 45-67.

  28. When to Use Ampersands and Commas • Stating author names vs. citing author names QuinlanandBardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education. but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan &Bardeen, 2007). • Three or more authors cited, use commas Researchers (Cresswell, Borg, &Allsop, 2004) have found that this is true. In reference list Quinlan, N., & Bardeen, A. (2007). Information literacy in higher education. College and Research Libraries, 34(3), 45-67.

  29. When to Use Ampersands and Commas • Stating author names vs. citing author names QuinlanandBardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education. but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan &Bardeen, 2007). • Three or more authors cited, use commas Researchers (Cresswell, Borg, &Allsop, 2004) have found that this is true. In reference list Quinlan, N., & Bardeen, A. (2007). Information literacy in higher education. College and Research Libraries, 34(3), 45-67.

  30. Test yourself • The theory (Smith, Brown, and Jones, no date) • or • The theory (Smith, Brown, & Jones, n.d.)   • Two research studies (APA, 2002; Barnes, 2005) • or • Two research studies (Barnes, 2005; APA, 2002) • MacDougall (2004, para. 34) stated that “the Information Literacy Model needed to be implemented”. • or • MacDougall (2004) stated that “the Information LiteracyModel needed to be implemented” (Methods section, para. 4). • or • 3. MacDougall (2004) stated that “the Information LiteracyModule need to be implemented.” (para. 34) 

  31. Reference citation in reference list: McPherson, K. (2007). Harry Potter and the goblet of motivation. Teacher Librarian,34(4), 71. doi:10.1037 /0002-9432.76.4.482

  32. How to Cite a Journal Article Retrieved Online

  33. Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Author(s) Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), 34-47. • Initials, not first names. No title • Ampersand (&), not the word and • Comma before the ampersand. • Space between initials See APA (6th ed,), p. 184

  34. Names • Do not include titles Arguellos, S., Ph.D.(2007).Bucher, J., Dr. (2005). • If author’s first name is hyphenated, retain hyphen Chin, E.-F., Barry, B., & Wilson, H. W. APA (6th ed.), p. 184

  35. Suffices for Names • Use a space to separate initials and suffices in your name for the author byline R. F. Johnson,Jr.D. S. Altilio,III • For references in the text, do not include suffixes (Johnson, 2008)Altilio (2004) • For references in the reference list, use a comma to separate initials and suffices. Johnson, R. F.,Jr.Altilio, D. S.,III APA (6th ed.), pp. 24, 174, 184

  36. Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Year of publication Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), 34-47. • Enclosed in parentheses • Period after the parentheses • No month or day if the publication is a journal, not a magazine, newsletter, or newspaper article. See APA (6th ed.), p. 185

  37. Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Article title Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time:A fresh approach to educational equivalency.TechTrend, 24(3), 34-47. • Only first word in title and subtitle should be • be capitalized as well as any proper names. • A period at the end of the title. • Only one space after the period, not two. See APA (6th ed.), p. 185

  38. Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), 34-47. • Journal title should have all important words capitalized. • It is italicized • The journal title is followed by a comma Journal title See APA manual, pp. 186-187

  39. Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), 34-47. • The volume number is italicized • There should be no space betweenthe volume number and issue number • Enclose issue number in parentheses • and follow by a comma • Do not use p. or pp. for journal articles. Volume, issue, and page number(s) See APA manual, p. 186

  40. Pagination by Issue or Continuous Pagination • FSEHS recommends always including both the volume and issue number, regardless of whether the publication is paginated continuously or by issue. Journal of Reading Volume 16 2004 APA (6th ed.), p. 186

  41. Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online: Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), 34-47.doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482 DOI number • Preferred: If the database has a Digital Object Identifier that functions as a unique identifier of the content and a link to the content, then use that. • Do not capitalize doi, and do not include a space before or after the colon. • Do not put a period at the end of the doi number.

  42. Examples of a DOI

  43. Examples of a DOI

  44. DOI in ERIC Database

  45. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/43/3/007

  46. DOIs found in the abstract

  47. Non-DOI numbers from other vendors:DO NOT INCLUDE THESE!

  48. How to find a DOI for an article Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(3), 660-670.

  49. Coming soon! DOI lookup tool