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SOUND CHANGES IN CIREBONESE

SOUND CHANGES IN CIREBONESE

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SOUND CHANGES IN CIREBONESE

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  1. SOUND CHANGES IN CIREBONESE By Didi Sukyadi Sri Wulandari UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN INDONESIA

  2. Background: • Cirebonese is seen as a dialect by both Sundanese and Javanese • Not all Cirebonese understand Javanese and Sundanese • Cirebonese prefer to identify themselves as Cirebonese not Sundanese or Javanese • Cirebonese want to create their own dialect

  3. Cirebonese has • carried out Cirebonese Language Congress in 2007 • established Lembaga Basa lan Sastra Cerbon • already had “Kamus Bahasa Cirebon” • literary works such as Purwaka Caruban Nagari, Serat Catur Kanda • is taught at schools

  4. Is Cirebonese a Language? • Language changes • Does Cirebonese change? • If we can prove that Cirebonese changes, then we prove that it is a language

  5. Study Objectives (1) Identify sound changes in Cirebonese (2) Show that Cirebonese behaves as other languages

  6. Methodology • Corpus: Taken from Cirebonese classic text “Serat Catur Kanda” • Number of data: 587 Cirebonese words experiencing changes • Theoretical Framework: (Crowley, 1997 and Murray, 1996).

  7. Findings • Changes in Cirebonese: • loss of affixes, • vowel deletion, • consonant omission, • sound change in vowel, • sound change in consonant, • omission of infix, • change of particle /–ing/ to /e/, • omission of double nasalization, • borrowing, • word breaking • insertion.

  8. Types of Changes • Aphaeresis • Syncope • Apocope • Lenition • Fortition • Assimilation • Fusion • Epenthesis • Borrowing • Word breaking

  9. Vowel Deletion • Aphaeresis • Syncope

  10. Aphaeresis • The dropping of initial segments

  11. Syncope • The loss of segments in the middle of the words resulting in consonant clusters

  12. Syncope (not resulting in consonant cluster)

  13. Consonant deletion • Aphaeresis: the dropping of initial sound

  14. Consonant deletion • Syncope: the loss of segments at the middle of words

  15. Consonant deletion • Apocope: the dropping of final sound

  16. Lenition (weakening)

  17. Assimilation: one sound causes another to be more similar to each other

  18. Fusion Two separate words became a single word

  19. Fortition • Strengthening: continuants to stops, voiceless to voiced

  20. Fortition: strengthening • Vowel /a/: (back/low vowel) __ /e/ (front/mid vowel)

  21. Fortition: strengthening • U ____ i wus wis (back – front)

  22. Syncope: the loss of infix –in- and –um-

  23. Apocope: Loss of -ning/ -ing and changes to e

  24. Aphaeresis: Loss of double nasals

  25. Borrowing

  26. Word Breaking: • -Ira/ -nira, from the word sira • Vowel sira: KV • Consonant ira: VK

  27. Addition • Epenthesis: addition of vowels to break up two consonants

  28. Thank You