Gestalt Theory Definition (useful to us): a concrete individual and characteristic entity, existing as something detached and having a shape or form as one of its attributes Simplified: the Gestalt psychology is how people see and understand the relation of the whole to the parts that make up that whole.
Gestalt Theory • Perceptual Organization • Good figure • Figure-ground separation • Continuity • Helped form basis message design principles • The part of a whole property is the basis of its importance
What is Schema Theory? “A schema is an abstract representation of a direct perceptual experience.” (91)
Characteristics of a Schema • Serves as a memory structure
Characteristics of a Schema • Schema as an abstraction: • Flexible template • Lori’s New Cat: • With Cat Schema: male, tabby, black nose, talkative, white paws • Without Cat Schema: four legs, tail, two eyes, two ears, feline species, male…
Characteristics of a Schema • Schema is arranged in a network of interlinking “nodes” • Insert pictures
Characteristics of a Schema • Schemata are dynamic structures • Child with widely applied cat schema image
Characteristics of a Schema • Schemata are dynamic structures • Assimilation • Accommodation • Child with refined schema and new schema image
Characteristics of a Schema • Schema as Context • Existing schemata influence how we encode and process new information • Give a setting for an opening page of a book
Encoding Graphics into Schemas • Imaginal Encoding vs. Structural Encoding • “Dual Coding” Theory • Structural representation > grid image Good place to include an example – check this out: http://www.nowhereroad.com/gallery/mmmodel/ You do have to install the macromedia authorware, but it is free
Schemata and Information Mapping • Spatial organization of textual information • More effective than pre-made diagrams • Useful to instructional designers
Web design by IBM • http://mime1.marc.gatech.edu/mime/papers/colorTR.html • Here is an article by a guy at IBM about using color schemes effectively – can this help? Ironically, it’s all text and no color or pictures
Mental Models • Similar to schemata except: • They are more broad • They refer to causality between objects within the model
Mental Models and Instruction • Put Movie here
Mental Models and Expert Knowledge • Expert knowledge is organized around core concepts • Goal is to develop expert knowledge to the point of automaticity; this frees up cognitive resources for other tasks • Is this where you want to include expert systems and AI? • IBM: Deep Blue vs Kasparov (Chess) http://researchweb.watson.ibm.com/deepblue/home/html/b.html • Simplest example is internet search engines like www.msn.com
Mental Processes • Overview • Assumption: the cognitive actions operate on metal representation. • Three families: Information Processing, Symbol Manipulation, and Knowledge construction
Long-term memory Rehearsal Buffer Information for the Environment Sensory Register Short-term memory Memory decays after about 15 seconds Information processing model Information Processing Model • Describe stages that information moves through in the cognitive system and suggests processes that operate at each step.
Problems with the theory • Relative inefficiency/ how to account for creativity • Abstract representation/ bottom-up vs. top-down
Symbol Manipulation • How is information that is processed by the cognitive system represented by it? • As symbols • Encoding and decoding of symbol
Mental image • “Mental Rotation” • “Zooming” • “Zooming film”
Influence on ET • The study of visual literacy • The study of interaction between technology and cognitive systems • Dicussed further later – do we need to keep this slide?
Knowledge Construction • New concepts are created • “perceptual cycle” centered on the person • “semiotic theory” • “Filled ” and “Empty ” Technology
Mental Processes -overview • Assumption: the cognitive actions operate on metal representation. • Three families: • Information Processing, • Symbol Manipulation, • and Knowledge construction
Three families: Information Processing • Describe stages that information moves • Suggests processes that operate at each step. Symbol Manipulation To answer how is information that is processed by the cognitive system represented by it? Knowledge construction To explain who knowledge is constructed.
Information Processing Model I ’ll insert a pic here!-jeff
Long-term memory Rehearsal Buffer Information for the Environment Sensory Register Short-term memory Memory decays after about 15 seconds Information processing model Information Processing Model
Problems with I-P theory 1.Relative inefficiency/ how to account for creativity 2. Abstract representation/ bottom-up vs. top-down
Symbol Manipulation • How is information that is processed by the cognitive system represented by it? • First of all as symbols. • Encoding and decoding of symbol
Mental image • “Mental Rotation”
Mental image • Mental rotation
Mental image • “Zooming” • “Zooming film”
Mental Image’s Influence on ET • The study of visual literacy Check next slide for Gurinder’s contribution
Application of Gestalt Theory • Visual Literacy - what can be seen and how we interpret what is seen. • study the physical processes involved in visual perception • use of technology to represent visual imagery • develop intellectual strategies used to interpret and understand what is seen. • http://www.academic.marist.edu/pennings/viswhatis.htm
Mental Image’s Influence on ET • The study of interaction between technology and cognitive systems Gurinder will talk about this later – will discuss “gifted” system and also expert systems – or, if you’d like, can show the “spa” expert system from: http://ext2.aiinc.ca/spa/
Knowledge Construction • New concepts are created • “perceptual cycle” centered on the person
Knowledge Construction • “semiotic theory” • “Filled ” and “Empty ” Technology
Cognitive Science • bypasses current methodological problems. • Is a functional or computational approach • Provides theory and impetus to create computer programs that “think” • Where does this slide go?
Cognitive Theory and Ed Tech • Gurinder will talk from here • This slide gets deleted before the presentation
Theory, Practice, and Instructional Design Why behaviorism is only a part of our whole Behavior is not predictable
Theory, Practice, and Instructional Design • Design is how theory guides practice • Design works through a process called satisficing (vocab) • Degree of success • The validity of our knowledge on effective instruction in a given subject domain • The reliability of our procedures for applying that knowledge
Theory, Practice, and Instructional Design • Instructional theory – (opposition) – guided by conditions, methods, and outcomes Ie. To teach how to form the past tense of regular English verbs (outcome) to advanced students of English who are familiar with all relevant grammatical terms and concepts (conditions), present them with a written description of the procedures to follow (method). • Problem: designer is usually not • Able to make such specific statements • A subject matter specialist • The prescription may not be valid – the test cannot account for every case but rather infers from a sample
Theory, Practice, and Instructional Design • Task analysis • Identify exactly what the student must achieve in order to attain the instructional outcome • Learner analysis • Determine the most critical o the conditions under which instruction is to take place Instructional designers must know instructional theory AND how to do task and learner analysis
Cognitive Theory and the Predictability of Behavior • The theory shift has occurred, but the procedures of instructional design have not • Cognitive’s challenges to behavior • Instructional theory is incomplete – there is not a prescription for ever possible combination of conditions, methods, and outcomes • Mediating cognitive variables differ in nature and effect from individuals • Response to stimulus varies among individuals • Metacognition (student) • Students monitor their own progress • Students adjust for poor performance • Plausible thinking • People make decisions and take actions on basis of incomplete information
Cognitive Theory and Ed Tech Unlike behavioral task analysis, which produces task hierarchies or sequences, cognitive analysis produces either descriptions of knowledge schemata that students are expected to construct, or descriptions of the steps information must go through as the student processes it or both Cognitive approach provides descriptions of students’ mental models, not descriptions of their levels of performance prior to instruction Instructional strategies are selected on the basis of their likely ability to modify schemata rather than to shape behavior
Instructional Design • Conceptualization and doing of instruction must occur simultaneously • Demand for “empty technologies” that can be filled with anything the student or teacher wishes
Scholarship 3 “Ages” • Age of Instructional design • Dominated by behavioral theories • Decisions are driven by task analysis – we need all 3 • Age of Message design • Shift from Instructional content to instructional formats • Format of content affects how it is encoded in memory structures • Age of Environment design • Based on cognitive theory • Interaction leads to construction of understanding • Virtual environments can empower educators to control this
In Jeff’s section, there are a lot of slides that repeat themselves. I did not want to edit these slides because some of them, Jeff split one slide into two – I don’t know how you wish to present them so I will leave the organization up to you. I have inserted examples that I can show during the content of jeff’s presentation, but I do not want to incorporate any of my slides – after reading them over, I feel it’s better to allow Jeff to lay down the basics before I show applications.
Metacognition – change title to adjust to location in presentation • Two basic processes occurring simultaneously: monitoring your progress as you learn, and making changes and adapting your strategies if you perceive you are not doing so well. • It's about self-reflection, self-responsibility and initiative, as well as goal setting and time management. • Awareness of the process of learning, is a critical ingredient to successful learning. • Effect • Leads to “ownership” of the knowledge/information learned • Please insert where you feel necessary, jeff. If not, I can add it to my part of the presentation
Metacognition - more Exam studying strategies using metacognition