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The Underpinnings of Physical Science. What is the goal of science? Science seeks to make predictions about… The future of things (hurricanes, climate, etc.) The location of things (hurricanes, oil, etc.). How does science make predictions?. The Underpinnings of Physical Science.
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The Underpinnings of Physical Science • What is the goal of science? • Science seeks to make predictions about… • The future of things (hurricanes, climate, etc.) • The location of things (hurricanes, oil, etc.)
The Underpinnings of Physical Science • To predict scientists build models… Models: (explain in detail) 1. What variables effect a certain system? 2. How do they correlate quantitatively?
Scientific theory: A set of rules (usually equations) that relate predicted outcomes from a model to actual outcomes. Ex. Plate tectonics
Hallmarks of Scientific theory • Based on observations Not observable = not science Theories are only as good as our ability to observe • Always provisional (nothing is 100%) Don’t seek the truth, instead they seek to disprove theories • Unique role of modification Theories are actively and encouragingly challenged and changed
Foundational Laws 1. Law of conservation of mass: mass is neither created nor destroyed. It’s just transformed from one state to another. Open system VS Closed systems
Foundational Laws • Law of conservation of mass:… Open system VS Closed systems
Foundational Laws • First law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy): in a system of constant mass energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it is transformed from one form to another whenever work is done Work= transformation of energy Energy= the ability to do work
Forms of energy: • motion: kinetic energy (visible macro scale motion), heat energy (molecular scale), electrical energy (electron movement) • Potential: gravitational (pen falling), chemical (apple), nuclear (decaying radioactive elements). • Radiant: electromagnetic spectrum (sunlight, x-rays, etc.)
Foundational Laws • First law of thermodynamics… Forms of energy… 1… 2… 3…
Foundational Laws 3. 2nd law of thermodynamics (entropy law): all natural systems operate in such a way as to generate and maintain entropy. Entropy: the inability to do work. Ex. Unequally heated rooms (see handout)
Foundational Laws 3. 2nd law of thermodynamics