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  1. Stofberg Presentation SMART MUSCLE TRAINING Liesbeth Pauwels May 2010

  2. Smart muscle training overview • Training movement, not muscle • Efficiency • Athlete development • Training principles • Training programs • Recovery strategies • Research

  3. Traditional training • Failing to optimize performance • Does not simulate performance on field • Creates false sense of confidence • Muscle isolation • Machine based • Aerobic training • Linear speed training

  4. Transfer training or Simulated training • Encourages athlete to think and react • Encourages athlete to analyze and correct their own performance • Exercises are related to the athlete’s sporting demands • Promotes realistic sense of confidence

  5. The optimal training load for the development of dynamic athletic performance • The experimental group which trained with the load that maximized mechanical power achieved the best overall results in enhancing dynamic athletic performance recording statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvements on most test items and producing statistically superior results to the two other training modalities on the jumping and isokinetic tests.

  6. Concepts smart muscle • Anaerobic energetic • Dynamic balance • Speed • Agility • Quickness

  7. Concepts cont. • Muscle reactivity • Joint stability • Rotary core power • Deceleration • Whole body power initiation • Multi joint strength • Multi directional movement skills • Whole body reaction skills

  8. Terminology • Strength is the maximal force a muscle group can generate • Power is the rate of performing work • Power = force x distance / time • Muscular endurance is the capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions or a single static contraction • Aerobic Power: The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that depend on the involvement and availability of oxygen • Anaerobic Power: The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that function without the involvement of oxygen

  9. Athlete development • Achieve goals in sport and life • Holistic approach • Treatment and training of the person as a whole, taking into account mental + social factors

  10. 1. Functional testing • Body composition • Mobility • Balance • Speed • Agility • Power • 1st step quickness • Strength • Aerobic condition • Anaerobic condition

  11. 2. Mental training program • Sport psychologist • PST program • Visualization • Goal setting • Self talk • Anxiety management • Performance evaluation

  12. Psychological Skills Training (PST) • Systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills for the purpose of enhancing performance, or increasing enjoyment/satisfaction • Integrates many psychological skills and methods • Requires training over time • Individualized

  13. Coaching principles • Create a healthy climate that is enjoyable and focused on mastering skills • Utilize a positive approach to coaching that involves positive reinforcement, encouragement, and appropriate instruction • Establish norms that emphasize athletes’ obligations to help and support one another. • Include athletes in decision-making roles regarding team rules and compliance • Engage in self-monitoring and assessment in order to focus on positive coaching behaviour

  14. 3. Sports nutrition • Fuel body for performance • Nutritional plan • E.g. Carbohydrate loading • Pre-post training/ competition

  15. Influence of Dietary Carbohydrate (CHO) on Muscle Glycogen Stores During Repeated Days of Training

  16. Relationship Between Preexercise Muscle Glycogen Content and Exercise Time to Exhaustion

  17. Example nutritional plan: golf • Breakfast: Scrambled eggs, 500 mL water, piece of fruit, yogurt • During warm-up (stretching, range, putting and chipping time before you tee-off): Piece of fruit, water During the first 6 holes: Banana, water or a mix of Gatorade and water if it is hot • During the middle 6 holes: Half of a sandwich, water During the last 6 holes: granola bar or fruit, water (or Gatorade if getting tired) • After the round and before post-round practice at the range / short game area: nuts, water, 2ndhalf sandwich, banana • My recovery plan (how will you refuel to get ready for the next day’s game? • May include more than just nutrition, e.g. stretching, hot/cold showers, massage, etc…): hot shower, stretching, relax watching television eat spaghetti with tomato sauce and veggies / protein (i.e. chicken) lots of water

  18. Training for sport

  19. Training principles • 1. individuality • Individualizing drills • Sport demands • Position • Fitness goals • Past/current injuries • Muscle imbalances • Postural breakdowns UNIQUE AND INDIVIDUAL VARIATION

  20. Training principles • 2. Specificity • Sport specific • To gain benefit, you must overload progressively for that benefit. • Strength, power, endurance, throwing, kicking, jumping, high speed, low speed. Train for what you need! • 3. Reversibility • If you don’t use it, you’ll lose it • Maintenance program

  21. Training principles • 4. Progressive overload • Muscles must work against a load that is greater than normal to improve. • Work body harder than normal, progress to higher levels • Includes: musculoskeletal, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory systems

  22. Training principles • 5. Hard/ Easy • 2 days hard training should be followed by 1 day easy training • 6. Periodization (1 year) • 12 wmacrocycle • 4w meso cycle • 1w micro cycle

  23. Structure Periodized training program

  24. Training terminology • Under training: type of training an athlete would undertake between competitive seasons or during active rest • Acute overload: the athlete is stressing the body to the extent necessary to improve physiological function and performance • Overreaching: brief period of heavy overload without adequate recovery • Overtraining: point at which an athlete experiences physiological maladaptations and chronic performance decrements

  25. Overtraining • Unexplained decline in performance and physiological function • Can occur with each of the major forms of training • Cannot be remedied by a few days of reduced training, rest, or dietary manipulation Possible causes: • Periods of excessive training or emotional stress • Symptoms similar to clinical depression

  26. Improvement in Performance With Acute Overload and Overreaching (a) in Contrast to the Pattern Seen With Overtraining (b)

  27. Overtraining syndrome: symptoms • Sense of a loss in muscular strength, coordination, and work capacity • Change in appetite • Body weight loss • Sleep disturbances • Irritability, restlessness, excitability, anxiousness • Loss of motivation and vigor • Lack of mental concentration • Feelings of depression • Lack of appreciation for things normally enjoyable

  28. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Overtraining Sympathetic Overtraining • Increased resting heart rate • Increased blood pressure • Loss of appetite • Decreased body mass • Sleep disturbances • Emotional instability • Elevated basal metabolic rate Parasympathetic Overtraining • Early onset of fatigue • Decreased resting heart rate • Rapid heart rate recovery after exercise • Decreased resting blood pressure

  29. Treatment and prevention overtraining Treatment • Marked reduction in training intensity or complete rest • Counseling Prevention • Follow periodization training procedures • Pay attention to carbohydrate intake

  30. Resistance training programs • Low-repetition, high-resistance training enhances strength development • High-repetition, low-resistance training optimizes muscular endurance • Periodization is important to prevent overtraining and burnout • A typical periodization cycle has 4 active phases, each emphasizing a different muscular fitness component, plus an active recovery

  31. Resistance training programs • Resistance training can use static or dynamic contractions • Eccentric training appears to be essential to maximizing hypertrophy • Electrical stimulation can be successfully used in rehabilitating athletes

  32. Tapering for key performance • Decreasing training intensity and volume before a competition increases strength, power, and performance capacity • Optimal duration of the taper is 4-28 days or longer and is dependent on the sport, event, and the athlete’s needs • Muscular strength increases significantly during tapering • Allows time for muscles to be repaired from damage incurred during intense training and for energy stores to be restored

  33. Tapering cont. • Less training is needed to maintain previous gains than was originally needed to attain them, so tapering does not decrease conditioning • Performance improves by an average of ~3% with proper tapering

  34. Case study: tapering for golf • Changing intensity before major events • related practice must be of competition quality –every ball contact counts, and realistic game situations should be recreated in practice. This is especially important in the 10 days before championships.

  35. Tapering for golf • Changing volume • golf training and practiced should be decreased slightly (by 10-15%) and cardio training should be decreased significantly (50% or more), and strength training should be decreased significantly (50% and minimal muscle stress during training).

  36. Tapering for golf • Changing frequency • reduce training frequency to no less than 80% of pre-taper values to avoid detraining and “loss of feel”, especially in technique dependent sports like golf.

  37. Final thoughts training program • Always have a plan. • All programs should be challenging: if the training becomes too easy the body will adapt very quickly and progress will stagnate. • Most injuries occur when there is a large change in training load or intensity: always progressively add training elements that work with the training plan. • Consistency is the key: without a consistent approach to training, regularity of session, effort during sessions and recovery after sessions the chance of high performance results is very limited.

  38. Exercise selection • Exercises and training protocols should be selected with the specific sport development of the athlete in mind. • Understand the exercise and training protocol and the effect it will have on the athlete: increases in strength, power, endurance, general fitness or hypertrophy (note: for the majority of sports an increase in body weight hypertrophy without a proportionally high increase in strength or power is counterproductive).

  39. Exercise selection • Athletes should first develop good technique before attempting to increase load. Athletes should also learn the basic lifts before progressing to more complex lifts. • Failure in lifting weights is not when a weight is dropped but when technique breaks down (lifting an extra 10kg but sacrificing technique will not benefit training results and will increase the potential for injury).

  40. Recovery strategies • Hydration • Stretching – cool down • Post meal, nutrition • Contrast showers • Ice bath • Active pool session • Massage • Hydrotherapy • Sleep

  41. Training in North America • TWIST conditioning inc. • • Since 1999, Twist Conditioning Incorporated, has been an industry leader in sport-specific and functional fitness, exercising to build Smart Muscle™. Just as balance is the foundation of our training, it is also the pillar of our company. With 4 major divisions - Training, Products, Education and Franchise, Twist Conditioning is world class in athlete training services, unique sport-fitness products, professional how-to-train educational programs and an integration of these 3 divisions with franchised sport conditioning centres.

  42. Twist- overview • Train. • Experience the difference at the Twist Sport Conditioning Centre. This is not a gym. There are no machines. Except one; the human body. The Twist difference is fueled by a team of industry leading coaches, an unparalleled training system, and an environment filled with motivation, passion, and the will to get better. Twist Sport Conditioning Centres are designed to inspire all who enter, offering an exclusive private setting with no general memberships. This is the place to be your best.

  43. Australian Institute of Sport • The ASC is recognized as a world leader in the development of high performance sport and sports participation. Services are provided in a range of fields including: • high performance coaching • sport sciences • sports information • sports management • facility management • education and resources • participation development • delivery of funding programs to national sporting organisations.

  44. Petro-Canada sport coaching conference 2010 • SPIN references


  46. Research • Journal of Strength & conditioning Research • International Journal of sports physiology and performance

  47. Concurrent strength and endurance training • Concurrent strength and endurance training appears to inhibit strength development when compared with strength training alone