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  1. Georgia High School Writing TestMarch 2009

  2. Table of Contents Part I: Introduction Part II: Persuasive Writing Part III: Writing Topics Part IV: Rubrics Part V: Ideas Part VI: Organization Part VII: Style Part VIII: Conventions

  3. Part I: Introduction • Administering the Test • Scoring Information • Domains • Score Scale • Weighting of Domains • Calculating the Weighted Raw Score • Scale Scores • Performance Level Descriptors

  4. Weighting of Domains Weighting means that the scores in some writing domains will be given more weight than others in determining the total score that a student receives.

  5. Raw Score to Scale Score Conversion Does Not Meet Meets the Standard Exceeds the Standard

  6. Scale Score Range (GPS)

  7. Part II: Persuasive Writing

  8. Objectives for Persuasive Writers • Shape the reader’s attitude on a topic the reader hasn’t thought much about • Reinforce existing attitudes to make readers feel more strongly • Reverse attitudes they want the reader to abandon • Persuade them to like something which they don’t like now • Convince them that a problem exists which they may not know about From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford

  9. Implicit v. Explicit Arguments • Not every argument has (or needs) an explicit thesis. • A writer may tell a story from which the reader has to infer the thesis. • Movies and literature can make strong social and political statements through dramatizing a situation. • Stories (even hypothetical ones) are more engaging to readers than straightforward letters to the editor. • Every student writer can think of a worst case scenario related to the GHSWT writing topic.

  10. Awareness of the Persuasive Purpose Demonstrating Awareness of the Persuasive Purpose • Establishes a clear position on the issue • Provides relevant supporting ideas • Selects convincing details and examples appropriate to the audience assigned in the writing prompt • Uses specific rhetorical devices to support assertions • Addresses readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations

  11. Reader Concerns in Persuasive Writing Reader Concerns are the expectations a reader brings to a piece of writing. General reader concerns: • Readers have a need for enough information to understand the writer’s purpose and message. • A reader should be able to pick up a paper without knowing the assigned prompt or assigned genre and be able to identify the writer’s purpose. • A reader should be able to tell if he/she is reading a report, an argument, or a narrative. Specific reader concerns: • Reader concerns will vary based on the task assigned in the writing topic. For persuasive writing, reader concerns often involve the other possible points of view on an issue.

  12. Counter Argument • Anticipates and acknowledges opposing points of view • Responds to alternative points of view with respect, but at the same time shows that there is a better way • Supporting ideas develop both the writer’s and the reader’s point of view

  13. Types of Arguments • Arguments from the heart • Appeal to readers emotions and feelings • Evoking anger, sympathy,,fear, happiness, envy. Love • Arguments based on values • Ask readers to live up to highest values by complaining they are not doing so. • Aligning your cause with values your readers hold • Arguments based on character • Readers tend to believe writers who seem honest and trustworthy • Sounding sincere, open-minded, knowledgeable • Referring to common experiences • Building common ground • Respecting readers • Arguments based on facts and reason • Offer factual evidence for every claim made • Writing with the skeptical reader in mind • Clarifying the issue for the reader From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford

  14. Arguments from the Heart:Emotional Appeals • Embarrass readers into contributing to a good cause: “Change a child’s life for the price of a pizza.” • Make readers feel the impact of their gift: “Imagine the smile on that little child’s face.” (compassion) • Tell readers a moving story: “In a tiny village in Central America…” • Use guilt: “Because of this, you owe it to them.” • Use patriotism: “All good Americans do this…” • Use greed: “There’s a payoff in this for you too!” • Use pride/ego: “You’re the only one who could do this for us.” From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford

  15. Arguments Based on Values • Typically compare what is and what ought to be. • A person or group does not live up to current values • Past values were better or nobler than current ones. • Future values can be better or worse than current ones. From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford

  16. Arguments Based on Character • Establish authority by drawing on personal experience • Be honest about who you are and what you do or do not know • Acknowledge other perspectives or point of view on the topic • Presenting your ideas clearly and fairly will improve your credibility. • Making people laugh will make them like you. From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford

  17. Arguments Based on Facts and Reason • Furnishing detailed evidence for every claim made in an argument • Facts make strong arguments • May employ the writer’s personal experiences From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford

  18. Combination Arguments • For the GHSWT, arguments don’t have to follow a single pattern. • Writers may use a combination of all types of arguments. • By making students aware of these four types, you provide them with: • More possibilities for generating supporting ideas during the GHSWT. • A deeper understanding of how the persuasive writer can interact with his/her audience.

  19. Narrative Arguments • The narrative argument must clearly illustrate the writer’s position and support for that position • The narrative can be a real or imagined experience • The narrative must be persuasive • The narrative should be framed in a way that both sets the stage for the issue and at some point links the story to the writer’s position – the “so what.”

  20. Thesis Sentences? • The writer’s commitment to a thesis sentence before writing may be premature, especially if the writer is still developing his/her ideas on the topic • Many writers benefit from writing a discovery draft of a paper, in which they discover what they have to say. • Students who do this often write their way into a thesis, and when this happens, the thesis sentence usually appears near the end of the draft. • This sentence may then be revised and moved to the introduction. • We urge caution in requiring students to always compose a thesis sentence before drafting. • The thesis should be provisional, subject to change as the writer becomes more familiar with his/her topic thorough drafting and revising. Trupe, Alice. Planning Strategies

  21. Persuasive Strategies • The reader must be able to understand the writer’s position, the writer’s evidence, and the writer’s line of reasoning (the link between the position and the evidence). • How does the writer gain reader support for his/her position? • Emphasizing benefits for the reader/audience • Address reader/audience concerns and perspectives • Present reliable evidence • Show logical reasons • Respect and/or engage the reader

  22. Part III: Writing Topics (Prompts) • Sample Writing Topic (Prompt) • Understanding the Writing Topic • Format of the Writing Task • The Writing Checklist

  23. Sample Writing Topic (Prompt) Writing Situation Many public school systems across the country require students to wear uniforms. Some educators believe that wearing uniforms will help students concentrate more on their school work. On the other hand, some students argue that having to wear uniforms prevents them from expressing their individuality. Your principal is considering whether students at your school should wear uniforms. Directions for Writing Write a letter to your principal expressing your view on school uniforms. Provide convincing reasons and specific examples to support your position.

  24. Fall 2008 GHSWT Writing Topic Writing Situation Many states are increasing the minimum driving age to prevent accidents involving teenage drivers. Some teenagers are worried because they depend on driving to get to work or school activities. Decide what you think about this issue. Directions for Writing Write a letter to your state representative that explains why the driving age in Georgia should be raised, lowered, or remain the same. Support your position with specific examples and details.

  25. Fall 2007 GHSWT Writing Topic Writing Situation Many students do not think the subjects they study in high school prepare them for the real world they will face after graduation. The principal at your school is asking students for their opinions about new courses that could be offered to prepare students for life after high school. What new course do you think should be offered? Directions for Writing Write a letter to convince the principal that your new course should be offered. Be sure to explain why your new course is needed, using specific examples and details.

  26. Understanding the Writing Topic:The Writing Situation • All GHSWT writing topics contain two sections – the Writing Situation and the Directions for Writing. • The Writing Situation gives the background for the writing assignment. • The first sentence of the Writing Situation introduces the general topic. • The remaining sentences in the Writing Situation help the writers think about different aspects of the topic, realize that they do know enough about the topic to write and then to focus their individual responses.

  27. Understanding the Writing Topic:The Directions for Writing • The Directions for Writing tell what the students are supposed to do for the writing assessment. • The first sentence of the Directions for Writing provides the students with a format for writing and gives the students an identifiable audience. • The final sentence of the Directions for Writing reminds the students to give many specific examples and ideas to elaborate their supporting ideas.

  28. Format of the Writing Task • The Directions for Writing specifies a format - such as a letter, speech, or a newspaper article - to give students a writing task that is similar to real world writing situations. • Regardless of the specified format, students should have a clear controlling idea that is well developed with relevant details and examples. • Adhering to the conventions of a particular format is not evaluated on the state writing assessment. • For example, if students are asked to write a letter, they will not be penalized if they fail to address the letter to the person named in the prompt or sign their name at the end of the letter. • Likewise, it is not necessary for students to write their responses in two columns to simulate a newspaper article. • The students’ writing ability is being evaluated, not their knowledge of formatting letters, speeches, or newspaper articles.

  29. The Writing Checklist StudentWriting Checklist for Persuasive Writing Prepare Yourself to Write • Read the Writing Situation and Directions for Writing carefully. • Brainstorm for ideas. • Consider how to address your audience. • Decide what ideas to include and how to organize them. • Write only in English. Make Your Paper Meaningful • Use your knowledge and/or personal experiences that are related to the topic. • Express a clear point of view. • Fully support your position with specific details, examples, and convincing reasons. • Include an appeal to logic and/or emotions. • Organize your ideas in a clear and logical order. • Write a persuasive paper and stay on topic. Make Your Paper Interesting to Read • Use examples and details that would be convincing to your audience. • Use appropriate voice that shows your interest in the topic. • Use precise, descriptive, vivid words. • Vary the type, structure, and length of your sentences. • Use effective transitions. Edit and Revise Your Paper • Consider rearranging your ideas and changing words to make your paper better. • Add additional information or details to make your paper complete. • Proofread your paper for usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.

  30. Part IV: Rubrics • The GHSWT Rubric Top to Bottom • Overview of Score Points 1 – 5: Five Levels of Competence

  31. Using the New GHSWT Scoring Rubric:The Rubric Top to Bottom Domain Title and Overview Domain Components Level of Competence Score Point Descriptions (1-5)

  32. Overview of Score Points 1-5Five Levels of Competence Score: 1 Lack of Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 2 Minimal Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 3 Sufficient Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 4 Consistent Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 5 Full Command (of the elements of the domain) GREEN = The degree to which the writer demonstrates control of the components.

  33. Part V: Ideas • The Components of Ideas • Controlling Idea • Elements of Supporting Ideas • Relevance of Detail • Development of Ideas • Depth of Development • Depth of Development in a Paragraph • Examples of Depth of Development in Score Points 1-5 • Sense of Completeness • Genre Awareness • Awareness of the Persuasive Purpose • Reader Concerns

  34. Controlling Idea An effective controlling idea: • Serves as the focus of the paper • Ties all of the information in the paper to the assigned writing topic and persuasive purpose • Helps the reader understand the writer’s purpose: “What is the writer convincing me to think or do?” • May be directly stated or implied

  35. Fluency: How much writing is enough to meet the standard? • Approximate number of words that can fit in the test booklet: 500 words • Writing less than 250 words is unlikely to meet the standard for the GHSWT • Show students sample papers in GHSWT Assessment and Instructional Guide • Ask students to write more • There is no magical length • Raters evaluate the depth of a paper

  36. Depth of Development Controlling Idea Supporting Ideas Major Details Specific Examples And Elaboration

  37. Depth vs. Breadth in Ideas • Score point 1 papers have neither depth nor breadth. • Score Point 2 papers often demonstrate some breadth, but little depth. • Score point 3 papers begin to narrow the topic and show some depth of development of the supporting ideas. • Score point 4 and 5 papers demonstrate both depth and breadth.

  38. Example of Depth of Developmentin a Paragraph Topic: Changing/raising the driving age Teens need their licenses for many practical reasons.Some of these reasons include getting to work after school and to football practice.Right now, I have to take the MARTA bus after school to my job at Starbucks. Most days, the bus is one time, but every once in a while it is late. My boss gets really angry on these days because I am late. Having a license so I could drive myself could really help this problem. Another way a license would come in handy is Saturday morning when I have football practice. Right now, I have to wake my mom up to drive me. She works hard all week long, though, and I think she deserves to sleep in. If I have my own license, I could simply drive myself without having to hassle a loved one for a ride.

  39. Example of Depth of Developmentin a Paragraph I am against required school uniforms (stated in the opening paragraph) Controlling Idea: Sample Body Paragraph Uniforms keep us from expressing our individuality.I like to express myself and my interests through my choice of clothes.But if I looked like 1,000 other people, how could I be expressive or original? No teenager likes being told what to wear everyday. I have some friends who attend schools where they have to wear uniforms. None of them ever say they like the uniforms. They are all unhappy because their individuality is stifled. I do not want to be that frustrated with my clothing. Supporting Idea Major Details Specific Details and Examples

  40. Example of Depth of Developmentin a Paragraph • The following sample body paragraph was taken from a paper about adding a new course to the high school curriculum. The controlling idea, “A class called ‘Preparing for Life After High School’ could help students make the transition to the real world,” was stated in the opening paragraph. • This new class would be quite an effective way of teaching young adults how and when each basic academic subject will be valuable in everyday life. For example, students must learn that even the most simplistic math skills can become difficult and confusing when applied to real world situations.Filing taxes is a fine example. Though the addition or subtraction itself may not be hard, if you can’t get everything in the correct column, there will be fines to pay with interest or possibly even jail time. Courses such as economics and social studies give us a general understanding of how our current economic systems come about, and why we pay taxes, but we need specific “how-to” advice so we can prepare our own tax returns.All of the core subjects could be translated for application to the real world in this new class.

  41. Examples of Depth of Development in Score Points 1 and 2 Ideas Score 1 Topic: Driving Age There are many reasons I think we should be able to get our licenses earlier. For one, we need a license to we can get to school and other activities. We also need a license to get to work. We also need a license so we can go on dates. Plus they look so cool in the window of your wallet. Ideas Score 2 Topic: Driving Age There are many reasons I think we should be able to get our licenses earlier. For one, we need a license to we can get to school and other activities. Lots of kids have to get to sports practice in the morning and afternoons. Some have to come in early or stay late for extra help. We also need a license to get to work. Most kids have jobs. If they get to their jobs late, they could be in big trouble. It is hard to get to work on time when you can’t drive yourself. We also need a license so we can go on dates. Plus they look so cool in the window of your wallet.

  42. Example of Depth of Development in Score Point 3 Ideas Score 3 Topic: Driving Age Dear State Representative, I wanted to let you know that teens do cause many accidents, but not as many as adults. Plus, there are many advantages to lowering the driving age. Please let me tell you more. For one, we need a license to we can get to school and other activities. Lots of kids have to get to sports practice in the morning and afternoons. Some have to come in early or stay late for extra help. Last year, I was having a hard time with Geometry, and I had to come in early every Tuesday and Thursday. That was really hard on my mom because she had to get ready even earlier on these days. We also need a license to get to work. Most kids have jobs. If they get to their jobs late, they could be in big trouble. It is hard to get to work on time when you can’t drive yourself. We also need a license so we can go on dates. I’m sure you can relate to that, right? Every kid is getting interested in people of the opposite sex, and it is lame to have your Mom or Dad drive you and your date to the movies. So, I hope you can see all the benefits that would come with lowering the driving age. Sincerely, A concerned Student

  43. Example of Depth of Development in Score Point 4 Ideas Score 4 Topic: Driving Age Dear State Representative, I wanted to let you know that teens do cause many accidents, but not as many as adults. Plus, there are many advantages to lowering the driving age. Please let me tell you more. Teens need their licenses for many practical reasons.Some of these reasons include getting to work after school.Right now, I have to take the MARTA bus after school to my job at Starbucks. Most days, the bus is one time, but every once in a while it is late. My boss gets really angry on these days because I am late. Having a license so I could drive myself could really help this problem. We also need a license to get to practices. Most kids in my school play sports. After practice they need a ride home. This is really true when it gets dark early. Picture all the girls on the swimming team waiting in the dark for their parents to come get them. That doesn’t sound safe to me. We also need a license so we can go on dates. I’m sure you can relate to that, right? Every kid is getting interested in people of the opposite sex, and it is lame to have your Mom or Dad drive you and your date to the movies. What happens if you want to hold hands, or even kiss your date good night? So, I hope you can see all the benefits that would come with lowering the driving age. I’m sure we can think of another way to prevent accidents from happening. Did you ever consider mandatory driver’s ed. at age fourteen? Sincerely, A concerned Student

  44. Example of Depth of Development in Score Point 5 Ideas Score 5 Topic: Driving Age Dear State Representative, I wanted to let you know that teens do cause many accidents, but not as many as adults. Plus, there are many advantages to lowering the driving age. Please let me tell you more. Teens need their licenses for many practical reasons.Some of these reasons include getting to work after school.Right now, I have to take the MARTA bus after school to my job at Starbucks. Most days, the bus is one time, but every once in a while it is late. My boss gets really angry on these days because I am late. So angry, he said he might fire me. Having a license so I could drive myself could really help this problem. We also need a license to get to practices. Most kids in my school play sports. After practice they need a ride home. This is really true when it gets dark early. Picture all the girls on the swimming team waiting in the dark for their parents to come get them. That doesn’t sound safe to me. I think our school district could get sued. This problem would be solved if these girls could hop in their own cars and be on their way. We also need a license so we can go on dates. I’m sure you can relate to that, right? Every kid is getting interested in people of the opposite sex, and it is lame to have your Mom or Dad drive you and your date to the movies. What happens if you want to hold hands, or even kiss your date good night? I would probably be so embarrassed I would want to cry. Do you want us to be lonely forever? So, I hope you can see all the benefits that would come with lowering the driving age. I’m sure we can think of another way to prevent accidents from happening. Did you ever consider mandatory driver’s ed. at age fourteen? Or how about making a law saying that teens cannot drive together? Sincerely, A concerned Student

  45. Examples of Depth of Development in Score Points 1 and 2 Ideas Score 1 Topic: School Uniforms I think students shouldn’t have to wear uniforms because others students have to wear uniforms. I think students will act better with out wearing uniforms. students don’t like to be dress the same way or wearing the same clothes at my high school. it hard to find uniforms at stores. uniforms cost a lot of money than regular clothes. some students don’t feel comfortable in uniforms I think students be getting in trouble because they have to wear uniforms. uniforms keep students from doing their work or getting their work done uniforms make students go crazy. Ideas Score 2 Topic: School Uniforms I think students at my school shouldn’t have to wear uniforms because other students have to wear uniforms. There will be more problems at school if students have to wear uniforms and some parents will have a hard time getting uniforms for their kids. I think students will act better with out wearing uniforms. I think students will be getting in trouble because they have to wear uniforms. Students don’t like to be dressed the same way or wearing the same clothes at my high school. So there may be more fights with uniforms It’s hard to find uniforms at stores. Uniforms cost a lot more money than regular clothes. Some parents can’t pay for uniforms, and some have many kids in school. So it wouldn’t be right to make students wear uniforms. Uniforms would just cause more problems at school. I don’t see why would should have to wear them. Uniforms make students go crazy.

  46. Example of Depth of Development in Score Point 3 Ideas Score 3 Topic: School Uniforms How would you feel waking up every morning and knowing already what you have to wear? I think students at my school shouldn’t have to wear uniforms just because students at other schools have to wear uniforms. Everything would be so boring and plain, no personality. You would even have to wear the school’s choice of colors. I know they say you’ll have less problems with dress code, but trust me, you won’t. There will still be fights about who looks better. I think students will be getting in trouble because they have to wear uniforms. Instead of concentrating on work, students will be upset and complaining all the time. Uniforms cost a lot more money than regular clothes. It’s not like you just need one pair of the bottoms and one top. They would need multiple uniforms. Some parents might not be able to pay that much. Uniforms keep us from expressing our individuality. I like to express myself. So if I look like 1000 other people, how can I express my individuality? Students don’t like to be dressed the same way. Also, wearing my own clothes makes me comfortable and that makes me fell confident. If I am confident, I can learn better. Uniforms will not solve the problems in the school that you think they will.

  47. Example of Depth of Development in Score Point 4 Ideas Score 4 Topic: School Uniforms How would you feel waking up every morning already knowing what you have to wear? Great, right? It’s true that you would spend less time searching for an outfit, but what if what you had to wear was the same thing you wore yesterday and would have to wear tomorrow? Uniforms, to me, are anti-individualist. I think students at my school shouldn’t have to wear uniforms just because students at other schools have to wear them. Everything would be so boring and plain, no personality. I know you think you’ll have fewer problems with dress code, but trust me, you won’t. There will still be fights about who looks better. No matter how we dress, some personalities are going to butt heads. I think students will be getting in trouble because they have to wear uniforms. Instead of concentrating on work, students will be upset and complaining all the time. Uniforms cost a lot more money than regular clothes. It’s not like you just need one pair of the bottoms and one top. They would need multiple uniforms. Some parents might not be able to pay that much. They need that money to pay rent and food costs. Uniforms keep us from expressing our individuality. I like to express myself through the way I dress. So if I look like 1000 other people, how can I express my individuality? Also, wearing my own clothes makes me comfortable and that makes me feel confident. If I am confident, I can learn better. Students don’t like to be dressed the same way. If your reasoning for uniforms is the cliques in the school, I can tell you that uniforms won’t help. Uniforms will not solve the problems in the school that you think they will. They will create new problems that interfere with students’ learning. Students may even drop out to avoid wearing a uniform. A better solution would be to enforce our current dress code.

  48. Example of Depth of Development in Score Point 5 Ideas Score 5 Topic: School Uniforms How would you feel waking up every morning already knowing what you have to wear? Great, right? It’s true that you would spend less time searching for an outfit, but what if what you had to wear was the same thing you wore yesterday and would have to wear tomorrow? Uniforms, to me, are anti-individualist. I think students at my school shouldn’t have to wear uniforms just because students at other schools have to wear them. Everything would be so boring and plain, no personality. I know you think you’ll have fewer behavior problems and greater concentration with dress code, but trust me, you won’t. There will still be fights about who looks better. No matter how we dress, some personalities are going to butt heads. I think students will be getting in trouble because they have to wear uniforms. Instead of concentrating on work, students will be upset and complaining all the time. When I went to private school, I was not focused on my school work, but on how goofy I thought I looked. Uniforms are more expensive than regular clothes. It’s not like you just need one pair of the bottoms and one top. Each student would need multiple uniforms. Some parents might not be able to pay that much because they need that money to pay rent and food costs. Would you rather have students be able to eat or dress identically? Uniforms keep us from expressing our individuality. I like to express myself and my interests through my choice of clothes. But if I looked like 1,000 other people, how could I be expressive or original? No teenager likes being told what to wear everyday. I have some friends who attend schools where they have to wear uniforms. None of them ever say they like the uniforms. They are all unhappy because their individuality is stifled. People who are unhappy are not going to be able to learn. I believe that school uniforms will do very little of what most administrators hope they will do. They will create new problems that interfere with students’ learning. When students are forced to wear uniforms, they lose their sense of self and feel like just another face in the crowd. Students may even drop out to avoid wearing a uniform. As long as schools actually take the time to enforcedress codes, what students wear should not be an issue. Uniforms unify dress, not students. I don’t know yet what I’m going to wear tomorrow and I like it that way.

  49. Example of Depth of Development in Score Points 1 and 2 Ideas Score: 1 Topic: Design a class I think this class is needed. It will help me in many ways like accomplishing my goals and get more job experience for my chosen career. It will help me accomplish my goals by giving me more of an insight on what and how I want to lead my life. So I would know if the career of my choice is right for me. So I can still explore new options. It would give me the experience that I need for what I want and how I want my life to go. The point I am trying to make is without this class I don’t know what I want. So please get this class and I will thank you. Ideas Score: 2 Topic: Design a class Many people believe that we don’t really need a lot of our high school classes. For example, how many of us are going to use algebra or history in real life. That’s why I think you should have a course I would call working. When you are in high school you can get a job and I think they should have a course on that. That way when a student gets a job, they will be more experienced in what they are doing. This class will show students what is expected at work. It will teach us to act like adults when we finish school. The working class will also teach us how to manage our money and balance a checkbook. We would take field trips to different kinds of jobs. I want to be able to compete for the jobs that I want. I think I am not the only person that feels that way either. I believe that if you were to do this many people would stay in school and try to get through it so they would have a better life in the future. Students wouldn’t think school was a waste of time.

  50. Example of Depth of Development in Score Point 3 Ideas Score: 3 Topic: Design a class Many of my classmates complain that they will never use any of the subjects they study in school after they graduate because they do not know how to apply school subjects to the real world. That is why I think that an “applying school skills” class should be offered at this school. This new class would be a good way to teach teenagers how each school subject will be valuable in their everyday lives. Just because students can add and subtract doesn’t mean that they can balance a checkbook. Just because students can write a book report doesn’t mean they can write a resume. A high school diploma doesn’t mean we can take care of ourselves. Taking field trips to local businesses would show how people use their education in the working world. Students could see how newspaper writers use English skills, engineers use math skills, and doctors use scientific knowledge. This would make students care more about all their other classes because they wouldn’t think learning these subjects was wasting their time. I would want to learn about money and time management, how to write a resume, and how to take care of a house and a car, but my classmates might have different interests. If you ask them what is important to them, they will tell you. Please consider this course as an elective for the next school year.