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Tools and Methodologies in Assessing Technology Needs: An Overview

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  1. Tools and Methodologies in Assessing Technology Needs: An Overview Contact: Prof. Zou Ji Dept. of Environmental Economics and ManagementRenmin University of China Email: zoujit@public.bta.net.cn

  2. The basic questions we try to answer: • How are different technology needs of different stakeholders reflected? • How to prioritize these technology needs? • How to ensure them most effective for achieving goals of both local sustainable development and the Convention? UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  3. Contents of the Presentation • Mandate and roles of technology needs assessment (TNA) • Process of technology transfer • Definition and roles of TNA • Process of TNA • Criteria for prioritizing technology needs • Decision making tools • Barriers encountered in TNA • Conclusions UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  4. Mandates on TNA Decision 7/CP.2, Para. 2b and 4f Decision 9/CP.3 , Para. 5b Decision 4/CP.4, Para. 5 and Para. 7c Decision 9/CP.5, Para. 6 Decision 4/CP.7, Several paragraphs and the Annex on framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance technology transfer UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  5. Decision4/CP.7: Definition of TN and TNA • A set of country-driven activities that identify and determine the mitigation and adaptation technology priorities of developing countries; • Involve different stakeholders in a consultative process to identify the barriers to T&T and measures to address these barriers through sectoral analyses; • These activities may address soft and hard technologies, mitigation and adaptation technologies, identify regulatory options and develop fiscal and financial incentives and capacity-building. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  6. UNCSD: Definition of TNA TNA can be an important instrument for the identification of technology needs, the development of sector specific technology strategies and facilitator of sound technology acquisition and transfer. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  7. Process of technology transfer (1) • Establish partnership between stakeholders by specific institutional arrangement; • Assess technology needs: identify alternative technology options and prioritize technology needs; UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  8. Process of technology transfer (2) • Design, implement, evaluate, and refine action plans for T&T; • Dissemination of technology information; • Technologies are in place and recipients can understand and utilize them. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  9. Process of TNA: models investigated • CTI Model • UNEP Model • UNCSD Model UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  10. Process of TNA: CTI Model (1) • Establish Criteria for Selecting Technology Transfer Priorities • Define Priority Sectors and Sub-Sectors • Compile and Supplement Technology and Market Information • Select Priority Technologies UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  11. Process of TNA: CTI Model (2) • Further Technology & Barrier Assessment & Stakeholder Consultations • Define Alternative Actions • Select Actions • Prepare Needs Assessment Report UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  12. Process of TNA: UNEP Models (1) Features ofEnvironmental Technology Assessment (EnTA): • delivery of information that helps those involved with technological developments to determine their strategic policy • Informal and flexible • serving for a strategic level of decision making • Providing for well informed policy choices which direct and guide selection, adoption, implementation and use of technologies. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  13. Process of TNA: UNEP Models (2) Process: 1. Examine the reason for the proposed technology 2.Identification of other guideline documents (Policies;Plans, and legislation) 3.Technology alternatives (Possible modification and possible alternative system to achieve ) UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  14. Process of TNA: UNEP Models (3) 4. Investigation and evaluation of technology effectiveness: (1) Technology cycle; (2) Material and energy; (3) Toxicity of material used; (4)Waste; (5) Effluent discharges; (6) Atmospheric emissions; (7) Global concerns; (8)Health and safety; (9)Operational efficiency; (10) Financial efficiency; (11)Social efficiency; (12) Institutional capacity. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  15. Process of TNA: UNEP Models (4) 5. Identify decision makers and processes 6. Identification of potential impact 7. Evaluation of Impacts 8. Policy generation 9.Implementation of follow up UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  16. Process of TNA: UNCSD Models (1) Definition: A National Needs Assessment (NNA) is a tool for the government or other national stakeholders of a developing country (designated as the 'host country') to define a portfolio of capacity building actions and technology transfer projects to be undertaken to facilitate, and possibly accelerate, the development, adoption and implementation of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs). UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  17. Process of TNA: UNCSD Models (2) Three phases: Phase I: Creating an enabling environment: • awareness raising and communication with stakeholders, and/or execution of pilot projects regarding transfer of ESTs; and • defining the NNA-project (problem definition in order to set objectives, define participation of stakeholders, develop the organizational framework and raise necessary funds); UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  18. Process of TNA: UNCSD Models (3) Phase II: Assessing capacity building needs: Actual execution of the assessment tasks through • data analysis; • consultation of national stakeholders; • resulting in a portfolio of prioritized capacity building actions and technology transfer projects. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  19. Process of TNA: UNCSD Models (4) Phase III: Implementation of the portfolio of prioritized capacity building actions. • the application of ESTs; • the definition and implementation of technology transfer projects regarding ESTs;and • an ongoing dialogue among national stakeholders, government and financing institutions regarding the implementation of ESTs. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  20. General Process of TNA (1) 1. Establish criteria for evaluation of technology by integration of core social and economic goals; 2. Identify different options of technologies 3. Describe characteristics of different technologies and evaluate them with the above criteria; UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  21. General Process of TNA (2) 4. Express opinions of different stakeholders on technology preferences and synthesize these opinions; 5. Rank/prioritize technology needs; 6. Summarize and report the results of assessment; and 7. Set up link with follow-up activities (design and execution and action plan). UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  22. Criteria for selecting prioritized technology • Environmental concern: global and local • Technological concern (penetration, reliability, easiness, and replication, etc) • Economic concern (IRR, payback period, abatement and transaction costs) • Social concern (equity and employment) UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  23. Analytical Tools • Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) • Existing information-based approach • Cost-benefit analysis • Cost-effectiveness analysis • Decision analysis • Risk-benefit analysis UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  24. Barriers/challenges to TNA (1) • How to identify the right experts and stakeholder representatives to be in the survey sample and what is the appropriate scale of the sample? • Weak awareness of climate and the normal environment and thus low rate of reply to questionnaire • Limitation of knowledge background across sectors of the investigated experts from specific sectors UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  25. Barriers/challenges to TNA (2) • Determine the appropriate scale of survey sample. • Failure in consistency test for significant amount of experts • How to ensure that no significant technologies are missed in the set of candidate technologies and keep the list of candidate technologies updated? UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  26. Barriers/challenges to TNA (3) • The difficult to get reliable data and information • lack of regular mechanism to keep the process of technology needs assessment continuous and iterative • institutional division between different government agencies and different administrative areas like provinces UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002

  27. Barriers/challenges to TNA (4) • Link between technology need assessment and national medium and long term plan for social and economic development and R&D strategies is not very close sometimes • The limitation of funding for conducting survey in a larger scale of sample and in a dynamic/iterative manner. UNFCCC/UNDP Expert Meeting, Seoul, 23-25/04/2002