OPERATIONSMANUAL PART-A GENERAL / BASIC 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS REV16
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS The commander is responsible for the flight which planned properly to meet safety, legal, economicand Company requirements. Besides to checking and preparing aircraft for flight technically, flightpreparation includes; - The preparation of an ATS(Air Traffic Service)flight plan - The preparation of an Operational flight plan - The determination of the usability of aerodromes - The preparation of a Load and Trim Sheet. - The relevant AIS(Aeronautical Information Service)and Meteorology briefing 8.1.1. MINIMUM FLIGHT ALTITUDES: As a basic principle, no flight shall be operated below the minimum safe altitudes except for the takeoff/Departure or the approach/landing. Time to time local regulations requires higher minimum flight altitudes. Fordetails see JeppesenAirway manual section "AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL"
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 188.8.131.52. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDESDEFINITIONS MEA (Minimum En Route IFR Altitude): The lowest published altitude(Flight Level)between radio fixes that meets obstacle clearancerequirements between those fixes and in many countries assures acceptablenavigational signalcoverage. MORA (Minimum Off-Route Altitude) : A route MORA provides reference point clearance within 10 NM (18.5 km) of the route centerline(regardless of the route width) and end fixes. A grid MORA altitude provides areference pointclearance within the section outlined bylatitude and longitude lines. MORA values clear allreferencepoints by 1000 ft.(300 m) in areaswhere the highest reference points are 5000 ft. (1500 m) MSL, orlower. MORA values clear all reference points by 2000 ft. (600 m) in areas where the reference pointsare above 5000 ft. (1500 m) MSL.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDESDEFINITIONS MOCA (Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude): The lowest published altitude in effect between radio fixes or VOR airways, off airways routes, or routesegments which meets obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment. MSA (Minimum Sector Altitude): Altitude depicted on instrument approach, SID or STAR charts and identified as the minimum safealtitude which provides a 1000 ft. (300 m) obstacle clearance within a 25 NM (46 km) (or othervalue asstates) radius from the navigational facility upon which the MSA is predicated.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 220.127.116.11. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS: When an aircraft is operated for the purpose of commercial air transport, the minimum altitude/flightlevel at which it is permitted to fly may be governed by national regulations, air traffic controlrequirements, or by the need to maintain a safe height margin above any significant terrain or obstacleen route. Whichever of these requirements produces the highest altitude/flight level for a particularroute will determine the minimum flight altitude for that route. The procedures outlined in the following paragraphs are to be followed when calculating theminimum altitude for the safe avoidance of en-route terrain and obstacles. ONUR AIR should take into account the following factors when establishing minimum flightaltitudes: (1) the accuracy with which the position of the aircraft can be determined; (2) the probable inaccuracies in the indications of the altimeters used; (3) the characteristics of the terrain, such as sudden changes in the elevation, along the routes or in the areas where operations are to be conducted; (4) the probability of encountering unfavorable meteorological conditions, such as severe turbulence and descending air currents; and (5) possible inaccuracies in aeronautical charts.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 18.104.22.168. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS: (continued) ONUR AIR should also consider: (1) corrections for temperature and pressure variations from standard values; (2) ATC requirements; and (3) any foreseeable contingencies along the planned route. During flight preparation, the en-route minimum altitudes must be established for all the routesegments. If necessary, diversion procedures must be established for critical cases (engine failure,depressurization) taking into account the topography along the route. For engine failure; the net flight path as defined in the Aircraft Flight Manual must beconsidered. The net flight path is established considering a drift down procedure taking into account a givendrift down speed associated with the expected aircraft weight, the remaining engine being set atMCT (Maximum Continuous Thrust), and considering the effect of: - Air conditioning, - Icing protection system if its use is expected, - Wind and temperature (weather forecast) Furthermore, Point(s) of No-Return (PNR) must be determined and the appropriate proceduresestablished (drift down on course or turn back depending on the aircraft position), should be applied when required. When obstacle is a limit factor, the pilot should be reminded for correct drift-down procedure. Procedures are specified in the appropriate chapter of the FCOM (one engine inoperative).
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 22.214.171.124.1. EN-ROUTE En-route IFR flight levels or altitudes should be higher than the published Minimum En-route IFR altitude (MEA) indicated on en-route Jeppesen charts. The minimum safe en route altitude should, is the higher of the Minimum Off Route Altitude (MORA) and the published Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA). Both minimum altitudes are indicated on en-route Jeppesen charts when they exist. In case of incomplete or lack of safety altitude information, obstacles and reference points have to be located on Operational Navigation Charts (ONC) or topographic maps, in order to ensure that the minimum altitude clears all reference points within 10 NM (18.5 km) of the route centerline (regardless of route width) by 1000 ft (300 m) if the reference point is not higher than 5000 ft (1500 m) MSL or 2000 ft (600 m) if reference point is higher than 5000 ft MSL. If available and not limiting, the grid MORA may be used as minimum flight altitude. These minimum altitudes must be respected along the track with all engines operative unless a procedure has been approved to cope with depressurization.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199.2. TERMINAL AREA Except during IFR approach or departure when on track with a published minimum altitudeon Jeppesen airport charts the minimum altitude must not be lower thanthe Minimum sector Altitude (MSA). 188.8.131.52.3. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINE FAILURE • One engine inoperative: In case of one engine inoperative, the following minimum altitude requirements apply: - The net flight path must have a positive gradient at 1500 ft (450 m) above theaerodrome where the landing is assumed to be made after engine failure. - The gradient of the net flight path must have a positive gradient at an altitude of atleast 1000 ft (300m) above all terrain and obstructions along the route within 5 NM (9.3 km)on either side of intended track. Or From the cruising altitude to the aerodrome where the landing can be made, the net flightpath must clear vertically with anegative gradient by at least 2000 ft (600 m) all terrain andobstructions along the route within 5NM (9.3 km) on either side of the intended track.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206. FLIGHT PREPARATION – MINIMUM FLIGHT ALTITUDEDETERMINATION During flight preparation, the en-route minimum altitudes must be established for all the routesegments. If necessary, diversion procedures must be established for critical cases (engine failure,depressurization) taking into account the topography along the route. For engine failure; the net flight path as defined in the aircraft Flight Manual must beconsidered. The net flight path is established considering a drift down procedure taking into account agiven drift down speed associated with the expected aircraft weight, the remaining enginebeing set at MCT (Maximum Continuous Thrust), and considering the effect of: - Air conditioning, - Icing protection system if its use is expected - Wind and temperature (weather forecast) Furthermore, Point(s) of Non Return (PNR) must be determined and the appropriateprocedures established (drift down on course or turn back depending on the aircraft position),when required. When obstacle limited, the pilot should be reminded for correct drift down procedure. Procedures are specified in the appropriate chapter of the FCOM (one engine inoperative). PER-OEI-GEN ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE PER-FPL-GEN-INT GENERAL (for Standard Fuel Planning)
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 220.127.116.11. MINIMUM FLIGHT ALTITUDE CORRECTION Temperature correction: When the surface ambient temperature en route is well below the ISA value, minimum flightaltitudes should be corrected as follows; Surface Temperature Correction to MOCA/MORA ISA -16°c to -30°C MOCA/MORA plus 10% ISA -31°c to -50°C MOCA/MORA plus 20% For more accurate altitude temperature correction data refer to FCOM "Operating Data"Chapter. PER-OPD-GEN
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 18.104.22.168. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE GENERAL : For performance purposes, all ONUR AIR aircraft are Class A (multi-engine turbojet poweredaircraft with a maximum passenger configuration of more than 9 and a maximum take-offweight exceeding 5700 kg) • ONUR AIR shall ensure that, for determining compliance with the requirements, theapproved performance data in the Aircraft Flight Manual is supplemented as necessary withother data acceptable to the Authority if the if the approved performance Data in the AircraftFlight Manual is insufficient in respect of items such as: • Accounting for reasonably expected adverse operating conditions such as take-offand landing on contaminated runways; and • Consideration of engine failure in all flight phases. • ONUR AIR shall ensure that, for the wet and contaminated runway case, performance datadetermined in accordance with EASA PART 25 or equivalent acceptable to the Authority isused. All performance on wet or contaminated runways provided by Airbus Industry isdetermined with EASA PART 25.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 22.214.171.124. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE TAKE-OFF • ONUR AIR shall ensure that the take-off weight does notexceed the maximum take-offweightspecified in the Aircraft Flight Manual for the pressure altitude and the ambienttemperature at the aerodrome at which the take-off is to be made. • ONUR AIR must meet the following requirements when determining the maximumpermitted take-off weight: • The accelerate-stop distance must not exceed theaccelerate-stop distance available; • The take-off distance must not exceed the take-off distance available, with adistance not exceeding half of the take-off run available; • The take-off run must not exceed the take-off run available; • Compliance with this paragraph must be shown using a single value of V1 for the rejected andcontinued take-off; and • On a wet or contaminated runway, the take-off weight must not exceed that permitted for a take-offon a dry runway under the same conditions. • When showing compliance with sub-paragraphs above, ONUR AIR must take account of thefollowing: • The pressure altitude at the aerodrome;
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE TAKE-OFF • The ambient temperature at the aerodrome; andONUR AIR need not consider those obstacles which have a lateral distance grater than: • 300m(1000ft) if the pilot is able to maintain the required navigational accuracy through the obstacleaccountability area; or 600 m(2000ft) , for flights under all other conditions. • When showing compliance with sub-paragraphs above for those cases where the intended flightpath does require track changes of more than 15°, an operator need not consider those obstacleswhich have a lateral distance greater than: • 600 m(2000ft) , if the pilot is able to maintain the required navigational accuracy through the obstacleaccountability area; or • 900 m(3000ft) for flights under all other conditions. • ONUR AIR shall establish contingency procedures to satisfy the requirements of SHT -OPS and toprovide a safe route, avoiding obstacles, to enable the aircraft to either comply with the en-routerequirements, or land at either the aerodrome of departure or at take-off alternate aerodrome.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 188.8.131.52. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE EN-ROUTE – ONE ENGINEINOP • ONUR AIR shall ensure that the one engine inoperative en-route net flight path data shown in theAircraft Flight Manual, appropriate to the meteorological conditions expected for the flight, complieswith either sub-paragraphs at all points along the route. The net flight path must have a positivegradient at 1500 ft above the aerodrome where the landing is assumed to be made after enginefailure. In meteorological conditions requiring the operation of ice protection systems, the effect of theiruse on the net flight path must be taken into account. • The gradient of the net flight path must be positive at least 1000 ftabove all terrain and obstructionsalong the route within 9.3 km (5NM) on either side of the intended track.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE EN-ROUTE – ONE ENGINEINOP The net flight path must permit the aircraft to continue flight from the cruising altitude to anaerodrome where a landing can be made in accordance with the net flight path clearing vertically, byat least 2000 ft, all terrain and obstructions along the route within 9.3 km (5NM) on either side of theintended track in accordance with sub-paragraphs (1) to (4) below: • The engine is assumed to fail at the most critical point along the route; • Account is taken of the effects of winds on the flight path; • Fuel jettisoning (as applicable) is permitted to an extent consistent with reaching the aerodrome withreaching the aerodrome with the required fuel reserves, if a safe procedure is used; and • The aerodrome where the aircraft is assumed to land after engine failure must meet the followingcriteria: • The performance requirements at the expected landing weight are met; and • Weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof, and field condition reports indicate that asafe landing can be accomplished at the estimated time of landing.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 220.127.116.11. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE LANDING–DESTINATION AND ALTERNATE AERODROMES i) PIC shall ensure that the landing weight of the aircraft determined in accordance withSHT-OPS1 Item 108 does not exceed the maximum landing weight specified forthe altitude and the ambient temperature expected for the estimated time of landingat the destination and alternate aerodrome. ii) For instrument approaches with a missed approach gradient greater than 2,5 % anoperator shall verify that the expected landing mass of the aeroplane allows a missedapproach with a climb gradient equal to or greater than the applicable missedapproach gradient in the one-engine inoperative missed approach configuration andspeed (see applicable requirements on certification of large aeroplanes). The use ofan alternative method must be approved by the Authority. iii) For instrument approaches with decision heights below 200ft, PIC must verify that theapproach weight of the aeroplane, taking into account the take-off weight and the fuelexpected to be consumed in flight, allows a missed approach gradient of climb, withthe critical engine failed and with the speed and configuration used for go-around ofat least 2.5%,or the published gradient, whichever is the greater. The use of analternative method must be approved by the Authority.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 18.104.22.168. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE DISPATCH CONSIDERATION TO RELEASE THE FLIGHTS FOR THE COMMANDER 1. PIC shall ensure that the landing mass of the aeroplane determined for the estimated timeof landing at the destination aerodrome and at any alternate aerodrome allows a full stoplanding from 50ft above the threshold: • For turbo-jet powered aeroplanes, within 60% of the landing distance available; or b. For steep approach procedures the Authority may approve the use of landingdistance data factored in accordance with subparagraphs 1(a) above as appropriate,based on a screen height of less than 50ft, but not less than 35ft. c. When showing compliance with subparagraphs 1(a) above, the Authority mayexceptionally approve, when satisfied that there is a need, the use of short landingoperations with any other supplementary conditions that the Authority considersnecessary in order to ensure an acceptable level of safety in particular case. 2. When showing compliance with subparagraph (1) above, PIC must take account of thefollowing: a. The altitude at the aerodrome; b. Not more than 50% of the head-wind component or not less than 150% of the tailwindcomponent; and c. The runway slope in the direction of landing if greater than +/-2%.
22.214.171.124. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE(continued) DISPATCH CONSIDERATION TO RELEASE THE FLIGHTS FOR THE COMMANDER 3. When showing compliance with subparagraph (1) above, it must be assumed that: a. The aeroplane will land on the most favorable runway, in still air; and b. The aeroplane will land on the runway most likely to be assigned considering theprobable with speed and direction and the ground handling characteristics of theaeroplane, and considering other conditions such as landing aids and terrain. 4. If PIC is unable to comply with subparagraph 3(a) above for a destination aerodromehaving a single runway where a landing depends upon a specified wind component, anaeroplane may be dispatched if 2 alternate aerodromes are designed which permit fullcompliance with subparagraphs 1, 2 and 3. Before commencing an approach to land at thedestination aerodrome the commander must satisfy himself/herself that a landing can bemade in subparagraphs Landing- Destination and Alternate Aerodromes i, ii, iii andsubparagraphs1, 2 above. 5. If PIC is unable to comply with subparagraph 3(b) above for the destination aerodrome,the aeroplane may be dispatched if an alternate aerodrome is designed which permits fullcompliance with subparagraphs 1, 2 and 3. The pilot must check before departure that the available runway length at destination is atleast equal to the required landing distance for the forecasted landing weight. In case of aircraft system failure affecting landing distance known before the dispatch, theavailable runway length must be at least equal to the required landing distance with failure,i.e. the required landing distance without failure multiplied by the coefficient given in theFlight Manual or the MEL.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE LANDING – WET AND CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS PIC shall ensure that when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or a combinationthereof, indicate that the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be wet, the landingdistance available is at least 115% of the required landing distance on dry runway asdetermined above. PIC shall ensure that when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or a combinationthereof, indicate that the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be contaminated, thelanding distance available must be at least the landing distance determined in accordancewith sub-paragraph above, or at least 115% of the landing distance determined inaccordance with approved contaminated landing distance data or equivalent, accepted bythe Authority, whichever is greater. (Refer to FCOM) A landing distance on a wet runway shorter than that required by sub-paragraphs above, butnot less than that required for landing on dry runway, may be used if the Aircraft FlightManual includes specific additional information about landing distances on wet runways. (Referto FCOM) A landing distance on a specially prepared contaminated runway shorter than that requiredby sub-paragraphs above, but not less than that required for landing on dry runway, may beused if the Aircraft Flight Manual includes specific additional information about landingdistances on contaminated runways. (Refer to FCOM) When showing compliance with sub-paragraphs above, the criteria for landing on dry runwayshall be applied accordingly except that the 60% margin shall not be applied tosubparagraphsabove.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 188.8.131.52. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE IN-FLIGHT Before commencing an approach to land, the commander must satisfy himself/herself that,according to information available to him/her, the weather at the aerodrome and the conditionof the runway intended to be used should not prevent a safe approach, landing or missedapproach, having regard to the performance information contained in the Operations Manual. The flight crew should use the Landing Distances published in the QRH as the reference forIn-Flight landing performance computation. The In-Flight Landing Distances reflect theperformance achievable in a typical operational landing without margin, assuming realisticairborne phase from threshold to touchdown and deceleration on ground to full stop. The In-Flight Landing Distances consider: - Touchdown within the touchdown zone - Maximum manual braking initiated immediately after main gear touchdown - Normal system delays in braking activation in case of auto brake - Prompt selection of max reverse thrust, maintained to 70kt, and idle thrust to full stop (whencredit is used) - Antiskid and all spoilers operative..
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206. AIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE FACTORED LANDING DISTANCE The definition of the In-Flight Landing Distance is not deemed to include margins. It assumesa stabilized approach in outside conditions consistent with the computation assumptions. Inorder to cover the variability in flying techniques and unexpected conditions at landing, theflight crew should apply an appropriate margin to the in-flight landing distances (eitherdetermined with or without failure). ONUR AIR recommendation is to add a margin of 15% tothe in-flight landing distance. Under exceptional circumstances, the flight crew may disregardthis margin. Some MEL items affect the landing distance. For these items, the MEL providesa coefficient that the flight crew must apply on top of the In-Flight Landing Distance. Even inthe case of an in-flight failure, the flight crew must apply the MEL coefficients on top of the In-Flight Landing Distance. GENERAL FORMULA OF THE LANDING DISTANCEASSESSMENT Taking the above into consideration, the flight crew should determine thelanding distance (either with or without failure) following the below general formula: Landing Distance= In-Flight Landing Distance x Safety Margin x MEL/CDL Coefficient (ifany)
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8.1.2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE USABILITY OF AERODROMES 220.127.116.11.GENERAL An aerodrome is adequate if . - Landing and over flying permission has been obtained. - It can be reached while respecting the rules of the air. - The available runway length is sufficient to meet aircraft performancerequirements (required take-off and landing distance). - The flight crew members have the required qualification, experience anddocumentation including up-to-date approach and aerodrome charts for eachpilot. (For aerodrome documentation refer to Jeppesen Airway Manual). - Rescue and fire fighting aerodrome category is compatible with the aircraft. (Referto ICAO Doc 9137-AN/898 - Part 1 : Airport Services Manual - Rescue and firefighting). Following table is to be used as guideline only:
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8.1.2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE USABILITY OF AERODROMES 18.104.22.168.GENERAL - If rescue and fire fighting category is not compatible with the aircraft type, OCC Department makesapplication to airport authority to upgrade the rescue and fire fighting category of the aerodrome. AlsoOCC Department keeps records of the application and upgrade confirmation messages in the offices. - The pavement strength is compatible with aircraft weight (Refer to Jeppesen Airway Manual – Airportdirectory or ICAO Annex 14, Attachment b : Aerodrome Design Manual - Pavement) orderogationisobtained from airport authority. - At the expected time of use; The aerodrome is available and equipped with necessary auxiliary services, such as: Air Traffic Services, communications, weather reporting and emergency services. - At the expected time of use;navaids, approach aids, lighting needed for the approved approachesare available - At the expected time of use;the aerodrome is equipped with the necessary ramp handlingfacilities;refuel, tow bar, step, cargo loading, ground power unit, air starter, catering water services, toiletservices. - For international flight, police, custom and immigration servicesare available at the expected timeof use.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8.1.2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE USABILITY OF AERODROMES 22.214.171.124.GENERAL - An aerodrome is suitable if: - The aerodrome is adequate for the operation and, - The meteorological conditions satisfy the planning minima given here after for the expectedlandingtime and meet the approach. Runway and aircraft capabilities and crew qualifications. - Operational Flight Plan shall consist of and specify any required alternate aerodrome(s), including En-Route alternates for flight duration exceeding1 hour flight time.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199.1. PLANNING MINIMA FOR TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE AERODROMES. A take-off alternate must be selected if a landing at the aerodrome of departure is not possible due toweather conditions which are below landing minima (considering one engine out). The take-off alternate shall be located within 1 hour flight time/one engine out cruising speed. Weather conditions required for a take-off alternate shall be such to allow a one engine out landing,meeting at least CAT I minima. 188.8.131.52.2. PLANNING MINIMA FOR DESTINATION AND EN-ROUTE ALTERNATE AERODROMES A destination aerodrome and/or destination alternate aerodrome(s)shall only be selected when theappropriate weather reports or forecasts - or any combination thereof - indicate that, during a periodcommencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the ETA at that aerodrome.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206.2. PLANNING MINIMA FOR DESTINATION AND EN-ROUTE ALTERNATE AERODROMES An adequate aerodrome may be suitable for destinationor en-route alternate if the weather reports orforecasts indicate that, during a period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after theestimated time of arrival at the aerodrome, the weather conditions will be at or above the planningminima as follow: Note : The planning minima for ETOPS en-route alternate aerodromes is defined in the ETOPSChapter 8.5.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 220.127.116.11. SELECTION OF AERODROMES 18.104.22.168.1. DESTINATION AERODROMES An aerodrome may be selected as destination for an operation, if it is adequate for this operation 22.214.171.124.2. TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE AERODROME When performance or meteorological conditions preclude(not posible)return to departure aerodrome, a take-offalternate aerodrome must be selected. This take-off alternate shall be suitable and located within. FOR TWO ENGINE AIRCRAFT : - Either, one hour still air flight time at the one-engine-inoperative cruising speed (max. continuous power speed) in ISA conditions based on the actual take-off weight; - Or the granted ETOPS diversion time (see ETOPS Chapter 8.5.) limited to two flight hours and if authorized for ETOPS. TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE DISTANCE : The following table gives a conservative figure for each aircraft type based on the maximum take-offweight:
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199.3. DESTINATION ALTERNATE AERODROME At least one suitable destination alternate aerodrome must be selected for each IFR flight unless: - Either, the planned duration of the flight from take-off to landing does not exceed 6 hours; andtwo separate runways are available at the destination and the meteorologicalconditions will support a VMC approach and landing from the minimum sector altitude forone hour before and one hour after the aircraft's estimated time of arrival (ETA). NOTE : Runways on the same aerodrome are considered to be separate runways when: - They are separate landing surfaces which may overlay or cross such that if one of therunways is blocked, it will not prevent the planned type of operations on the other runway;and - Each of the landing surfaces has a separate approach procedure based on a separate aid.Or - the destination is isolated and no suitable destination alternate aerodrome exists(island hold). In this case the alternate fuel is replaced by the fuel necessary to fly for twohours at cruise speed (refer to fuel planning - Chapter 8.). * TWO SUITABLE DESTINATION ALTERNATES MUST BE SELECTED WHEN: The appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination indicate that from one hour before to one hour after the aircraft's ETA the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning minima; or No meteorological information is available.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 188.8.131.52. AERODROME CATEGORIES - Category A aerodromes satisfy all of the following requirements: . An approved instrument approach procedure; . At least one runway with no performance limited procedure for take-offand/or landing; . At least one runway not shorter than 7500 feet . At least one runway not narrower than 45 m. . Approach climb gradient not higher than %2,5 . Published circling minima not higher than 1000 ft. AAL(Above Aerodrome Level); and . Night operations capability. - Category B aerodromes do not satisfy the Category a requirements or require extraconsiderations such as: . Non-standard approach aids and/or approach patterns; or . Unusual local weather conditions; or . Unusual characteristics or performance limitations; . Any other relevant considerations including obstructions, physical layout,mlighting etc. - Category C aerodromes require additional considerations to Category Baerodromes.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206. USE OF AERODROME CATEGORY B AND C USE OF AERODROME CATEGORY B: Prior to operating to a Category B aerodrome, the commander should be briefed, orselfbriefed by means of programmed instruction, on the Category b aerodrome(s) concernedand should certify that he has carried out these instructions. Please refer to 220.127.116.11. ( For list of CAT B Aerodromes, please see OM PART C ) USE OF AERODROME CATEGORY C : Prior to operating to a Category C aerodrome, the commander should be briefed and visittheaerodrome as an observer and/or undertake instruction in a flight simulator approved by theAuthority for that purpose. ( For list of CAT C Aerodromes, please see OM PART C. )
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8.1.3. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AIRPORT OPERATING MINIMA FORIFR FLIGHTS 18.104.22.168. CONCEPT OF MINIMA: The term minima refers to the aerodrome weather conditions anddefines the minimum visibility (horizontal and vertical) prescribed for taking off or landinga civil aircraft.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8.1.3. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AIRPORT OPERATING MINIMA FORIFR FLIGHTS 22.214.171.124. CONCEPT OF MINIMA: Different concepts of minima: • Aircraft capability given in the Aircraft Flight manual, defines the lowest minima for which theaircraft has been certified. • Aerodrome operating minima noted on the aerodrome chart, established in accordance with thenational authorities of the aerodrome. • Operator's minima approved by the national authority of the operator. They are the lowest minimathat the operator is allowed to use on a specified aerodrome. They cannot be lower than the aircraftcapability and the minima published on the aerodrome chart except whenspecificallyapproved bythe national authority of the aerodrome. These operator's minima are also called "aerodromeoperating minima" by the operator (but with a different meaning than in the previous case). • Crew minima are the minima that the crew is authorized to operate. They are based upon thequalification of the flight crew members.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199 APPLICATION OF MINIMA 1. Except in emergencies, strict adherence to the aerodrome operating minima as set forth in thefollowing paragraphs is mandatory 2. It should be clearly understood that regulations such as the following can not cater for everypossible situation which may arise, and pilots are therefore expected to use their bestjudgment inevery situation, maintaining the highest possible standard of safety whilst complying, wheneverpossible, with the rules outlined herein. 3. Each minimum published on the Jeppesen charts is the lowest permissible for the particular typeof operation; no reduction below the published values is authorized. 4. Whenever any requirement of the OM governing the application of a published minimum(e.g.availability of ground facilities or airborne equipment components, crosswind limitation, crewqualification) cannot be met, the published minima shall be increased accordingly.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 188.8.131.52. AIRPORT OPERATING MINIMA As a general rule the aerodrome operating minima are the minima indicated on the JeppesenApproach charts. However, at the commander's discretion, if other factors indicate that theoperationcannot be conducted with the required standard of safety the selected minima can be higher than theallowed operating minima. Notam may affect minima. For all weather operations refer to Chapter 8.4. NOTE: The Flight Crew shall not authorize aerodrome operating landing minima below 800 meters visibilityunless RVR information is provided for aircraft landing operations. NOTE: The Flight Crew will not continue an instrument approach to land at any airport beyond a point at whichthe limits of the operating minima specified for the approach in use would beinfringed. NOTE: The Flight Crew will not continue an instrument beyond a designated point in the approach unlessreported visibility, weather conditions or controlling RVR are equal to or above those specified for theapproach in use.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206. TAKE-OFF OPERATING MINIMA • The take-off minima’s shown in the following Tables according to aircraft types, will be used as abasic for ONUR AIR operations. Additionally the following procedures will also be taken intoaccount: A take-off must not commence unless: - The visibility or RVR is equal or better than the take-off visibility or RVR limits. - The weather conditions (ceiling and visibility) at the departure airport are equal or better than theapplicable minima for landing at that airport or at a suitable take-off alternate as defined in planningminima paragraph. When no reported meteorological visibility or RVR is available, the commander may determine thatsufficient visual reference exists to permit a safe take-off. When the reported meteorological visibility is below that required for take-off and RVR notreported, a take-offmay only be commenced if the commander can determine that the actual visibility along the take off runway isequal or better than the required minimum. For all ONUR AIR aircraft, performance is such that in the event of apower loss at any point during take-off, the aircraft can either stop or continue to a height of 1500 feet above theaerodrome while clearing all obstacles by the required margins. Therefore the take-off minima may not be lessthan those given in Table 1, below according to aircraft types.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 220.127.116.11. TAKE-OFF OPERATING MINIMA (1) The higher values apply to Category D aeroplanes. (2) For night operation, at least runway edge and runway end lights are required. (3) The reported RVR/Visibility representative of the initial part of the take-off run may be replaced bypilotassessment. (4) The required RVR value must be achieved for all of the relevant RVR reporting points except as stated in (3)above.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 18.104.22.168. TAKE-OFF OPERATING MINIMA(Jeppesen ATC EU-OPS 1 AERODROME OPERATING MINIMUMS (AOM) 6 TAKE-OFF MINIMUMS (EU-OPS 1)Page 603) 1 For RVR/VIS below 400m Low Visibility Procedure must be in use. 2 The reported RVR/VIS of the initial part of take-off run can be replaced by pilot assessment. 3 For additional information about Approved Operators refer to the description below this table. 4 The required RVR value must be achieved for all relevant RVR reporting points except the initial part of take-off run. 5 For night operations at least RL and runway end lights are required. Approved Operators: a. Subject to the approval of the Authority and providedthe requirements in paragraphs 1. to 5.below have been met, an operator may reducethe take-off minimum to 125m/150m when: 1. Low Visibility Procedures are in force, 2. High intensity CL spaced 15m or less andHIRL spaced 60m or less are in operation, 3. Crews have satisfactorily completed trainingin a simulator approved for this procedure, 4. A 90m visual segment is available from thecockpit at the start of the take-off run, 5. The required RVR value has beenachieved for all of the relevant RVR reportingpoints. b.Subject to approval of the Authority, an operatorof an aircraft using an approved lateral guidancesystem or an approved HUD/HUDLS for take-offmay reduce the take-off minimum to not lowerthan RVR 75m provided runway protection andfacilities equivalent to Category III landing operationsare available.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 22.214.171.124. APPROACH OPERATION MINIMA For approach, aircraft are classified in Categories: A, B, C, D, E. These categories are function of the indicated air speed at the threshold (VAT) in landing configuration at themaximum certificated landing weight. VAT : 1.3 Vso (stallingspeed)or VAT = 1.23 Vsig(V Stall in Ground Effect)(fly-by-wire aircraft). TR 36
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199.1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: The system minima (weather conditions function of the approach aid) for "Non Precision Approach" shall not be lower than the Minimum descent Height (MDH) value given in table 2 below: SRA: Surveillance Radar Approach VDF: Very high frequency direction-Headingstation(finding)
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 188.8.131.52.1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: MINIMUM DESCENT HEIGHT (MDH): Non-precision approach procedures are based on the use of ILS without glide slope (LLZ only), VOR,VOR/DME, NDB, NDB/DME, SRA, RNAV or GPS. The MDH on a non-precision approach shall not beless than the highest of : - The obstacle clearance height (OCH) for the category of aircraft; - The system minimum, as contained in Table 2 or - Any State minima if applicable. VISUAL REFERENCE : No pilot may continue an approach below Minimum Descent Height (MDH) unless at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible to, and identifiable by the pilot: - Elements of the approach light system; - The threshold, or its markings, lights or identification lights; - The visual glide slope indicator(s); - The touchdown zone, zone markings or zone lights; - The runway edge lights; or - Other visual references accepted by the Authority.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206.1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: REQUIRED RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR): The minimum RVR or a non-precision approach depends on the MDH and on the approach lighting and runway lighting/marking available as shown in Tables 3, below. For night operations at least runway edge, threshold and runway end lights must be illuminated. Ref : SHT-OPS 1 Appendix 9 Table 5. If table which is presented at reference is different than abovetable, most limited values will be used during operation.
Jeppesen ATC EU-OPS 1 AERODROME OPERATING MINIMUMS (AOM) 8 DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMVFOR CAT I PRECISION, APV ANDNON-PRECISION APPROACHES(EU-OPS 1)APPROACH LIGHT SYSTEMS The values in Table 6 are derived from the followingformula: Required RVR/VIS(m) = [(DH or MDH(ft) x 0.3048)/tan α] – length of approach lights (m) The formula can also be used when calculating RVRvalues for steeper approaches angles (α) with theapproval of the authority.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 220.127.116.11.1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA:
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 18.104.22.168.1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: CONSTANT ANGLE APPROACH PROFILE Flight crews will utilize a constant-angle descent down to a visual point (VDP). This methodwill be used when adequate distance to touchdown information is available. Adequate Distance to Touchdown : For the purpose of establishing whether adequate distance to touchdown information isavailable, the following sources can be utilized. A. DME information at the airfield that a pilot can utilize to establish his distance fromtouchdown whilst on the final approach track having passed the Final approach Fix(FAF). B. FMGS/FMS distance to touchdown provided the accuracy is positive or GPS primaryis annunciated in the PROG page. C. A radio beacon such as VOR or NDB is within 5NM from touch down and it is locatedon the final approach track. Note: The crew will ONLY consider a step-down descent to MDA (maintain MDA until MAP)when there is insufficient distance to touchdown information (e.g. NDB approach withoutDME information). The advantages of flying a constant-angle approach profile are: - Provides a more stabilized flight path, - Reduces workload, and, - Reduces the risk of error.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 22.214.171.124.1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: FLIGHT PATH ANGLE (FPA) The basic calculation determines the height required to be lost over the distance between theFAF and the Threshold. From this figure a FPA is deduced and a descent table formulated. Procedure: 1. Identify distance between FAF and Threshold, 2. Identify ‘Height to loose‘ by subtracting ( Threshold Elev+ 50ft ) from FAF Altitude, 3. Calculate the required Descent Gradient by using the following formula: Altitude Gradient % = ________________ (Distance x 60) 4. Calculate the required Flight Path Angle ( FPA) by using the following formula: Flight Path Angle (FPA) = Gradient % x 0,57° 5. If the required Flight Path Angle is : • FPA is ≤ 3° then use 3° • FPA > 3° then round-down FPA to nearest decimal point e.g. FPA = 3.36° then use 3. 3° FPA Calculate profile as per procedure listed above under ‘ Descent Gradient only published onApproach Chart.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 126.96.36.199.1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: VISUAL DESCENT POINT ( VDP) The VDP is the location, at the MDA, where the aircraft can be flown on approximately athree-degree glide path to the runway. The VDP is the last point from which a stabilizedapproach to landing can be conducted. Regulations require that the aircraft not descent below MDA without the required visualreference. If the aircraft is descending and, a go-around is required, the aircraft will losesome altitude from the point of initiating the go-around procedure to achieving a positionclimb profile.Therefore, an altitude margin must be added to the MDA when the crewidentifies the VDP. This will ensure that the aircraft does not descent below MDA in the eventof a go-around at the VDP. Procedure: 1. Identıfy MDH for runway intended. 2. Calculate the VDP by using the following formula : MDH VDP =______________ nm (FPA x 100)
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 188.8.131.52.2. PRECISION APPROACHES CAT I CATEGORY I : For permission approach purposes, a Category I operation is one using ILS with : - A runway visual range ( RVR ) not less than 550 meters, and - A decision height ( DH ) not lower than 200 feet. Note: PAR approach is not authorized. THE DH SHALL BE NOT LESS THAN THE HIGHEST OF : - The OCH for the category of aircraft; - The minimum DH in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), if stated; - The minimum height to which the precision approach aid can be used withoutthe required visual reference; - 200 feet; or - Any State minima if applicable. - The minimum height to which the precision approach aid can be used withoutthe required visual reference; - 200 feet; or - Any State minima if applicable.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 184.108.40.206.2. PRECISION APPROACHES CAT I VISUAL REFERENCE: No pilot may continue a precision approach Cat I below the DH unless at least one of thefollowing visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible to , and identifiable bythe pilot: - Elements of the approach lighting system; - The threshold, or its markings, lights or identification lights; - The visual glide slope indicator(s); - The touchdown zone, zone markings or zone lights; or - The runway edge lights.
8. OPERATINGPROCEDURES8.1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 220.127.116.11.2. PRECISION APPROACHES CAT I RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR): The minimum RVR is governed by the DH and the approach lighting and runwaylighting/marking available as shown in Table 5 below. For night operations at least runway edge, threshold and runway end lights must beilluminated. FALS : Full Approach Light System- HIALS 720m or more, distance coded centerline, barrette centerline IALS : Intermediate Approach Light System - HIALS (420m– 519m), single source, barrette. BALS : Basic Approach Light System - HIALS (210m – 419m), MIALS or ALS of 210m or more NALS : No Approach Light System - HIALS,MIALS or ALS less than 210m or no approach lights (JEPPESEN ATC) NOTE : Approach Lighting SYS must consist of; Runway standard lighting, edge lights, thresholds lights, runway end lights and touch down zone lights with centerline lights in case of RVR 450 m. CMV: Converted MeteorologicalVisibility: Avalue (equivalent to an RVR)which isderived fromthereportedmeteorologicalvisibility by using particularlyconversion factors. Jeppesen will publish all RVRvalues above 2000m as CMV.