Learning Objectives 1. Define and use the terms leisure, recreation, and tourism and understand their interrelation-ships. 2. Distinguish between the different forms of tourism - and the relationship of different types of tourist with the environment. 3. Appreciate the importance of scale in explaining patterns of tourism. 4. Identify the three major geographical components of tourism - tourist- generating areas, tourist-receiving areas, and transit routes. 5. Explain the push and pull factors that give rise to tourist flows. 6. Appreciate the main methods used to measure tourist flows and be aware of their shortcomings.
Worldwide Destinations • Definitions and Terms • Definition of Tourism • Spatial Scale • Components of the Tourism System • Spatial Interaction • Classifications and Forms of Tourism
Definitions and Terms • Definitions and Terms • Leisure • Recreation • Tourism • Time, attitude and choice • Activity during leisure time • Recreation or business activities of persons staying away from home for one night or more • Definitions of Tourism • Demand side or supply side (TSA) • Purpose of visit • Usual environment • Types of traveller
“The activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure business and other purposes.” United Nations Statistical Commission definition of tourism
Spatial Scale • Spatial expression of tourism as an activity • A way of thinking • World to personal scale • Macro to micro • Provides different perpectives
Components of the Tourism System • Tourist generating region • Transit zone • Tourist destination region • All set within political, social economic and environmental contexts
Spatial Interaction • Tourist flows – push and pull factors • Explaining interaction • distance • business links • attractiveness • Gravity model, forecasting models • Measuring flows • Tourist volume and characteristics • expenditure
Classifications and Forms ofTourism • By type of destination (domestic/international) • Characteristics of the tourist (Smith) • By characteristics of the tourism system (e.g. eco-tourism) • By market (purpose of visit) • By interaction with the destination (mass/alternative) • By distance (long haul/short haul)