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EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

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EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

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  1. EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION PRESENTED BY JYOTI RANJAN USN:1JS06ME016 123seminarsonly.com

  2. INTRODUCTION • Major problem faced by today’s world is environmental pollution. • Of these vehicular traffic is a major contributor . • Exhaust gases from vehicles includes CO,CO2,HC,NOx ….. • Of these NOx is particularly very harmful. • These are one of the chief constituents of smog, which have an adverse effect on ecological systems. • They also contribute to the formation of acid rain. • NOx also cause breathing illness in human beings. 123seminarsonly.com

  3. FORMATION OF NOx. • The factors that cause diesel engines to run more efficiently than gasoline engines also cause them to run at a higher temperature. • This leads to the creation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). • Fuel in any engine is burned with extra air and some of the oxygen is used to burn the fuel. • When the peak temperatures are high enough for long periods of time, the nitrogen and oxygen in the air combines to form Nitrogen oxides. • These are normally collectively referred to as “NOx”. 123seminarsonly.com

  4. HOW CAN NOx BE REDUCED? • In order to reduce NOx a engine should run at a lower temperature than the normal temperature. • Reduced cylinder temperatures can be achieved in three ways. • Enriching the air fuel mixture 2. Lowering the compression ratio and retarding ignition timings 3. Reducing the amount of Oxygen in the cylinder 123seminarsonly.com

  5. EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION • Exhaust Gas Recirculation is an efficient method to reduce NOx emissions from the engine. • It works by recirculating a quantity of exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. • Intermixing the recirculated gas with incoming air reduces the amount of available O2 to the combustion And lowers the peak temperature of combustion. • Recirculation is usually achieved by piping a route from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. • A control valve within the circuit regulates and times the gas flow. 123seminarsonly.com

  6. DIAGRAM Schematic Diagram of An EGR 123seminarsonly.com

  7. BASIC PARTS OF EGR • There are 3 basic parts of EGR • EGR Valve • EGR Cooler • EGR Transfer Pipe 123seminarsonly.com

  8. TYPICAL FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE WITH BASIC PARTS OF EGR 123seminarsonly.com

  9. ENGINE 123seminarsonly.com

  10. EGR OPERATING CONDITIONS There are three operating conditions for EGR flow. • High EGR flow • Low EGR flow • No EGR flow 123seminarsonly.com

  11. EGR THEORY OF OPERATION • The purpose of the EGR system is to precisely regulate the flow under different operating conditions. • By integrating the fuel injection&amount of air entered control with the EGR metering system, engine performance and the fuel economy can be enhanced • For this an ECM (Electronic Control Machine) is used to regulate the EGR flow. When EGR is required ECM opens the EGR valve. 123seminarsonly.com

  12. The ECM is capable of neutralizing the negative aspects of EGR by programming additional spark advance and decreased fuel injection duration during periods EGR flow 123seminarsonly.com

  13. EXPERIMENT RESULTS • Relationship between EGR rate and NOX 123seminarsonly.com

  14. Relationship between O2 concentration And NOx reduction 123seminarsonly.com

  15. HC and NOx concentration as a function of EGR Level 123seminarsonly.com

  16. Relation of PM accumulation rate And NOx emission with EGR 123seminarsonly.com

  17. TECHNICAL ISSUES • Combustion Contamination • Exhaust gas from any combustion process may have certain contaminants • May lead to serious combustion degradation and instability, and shorter component life. • Control System Stability • Control systems for modern engines have been developed over two decades to maintain emissions control at varying loads, speeds, and fuel conditions. • Adding EGR into the combustion process introduces further complexity that must be carefully integrated into the entire engine control system approach for successful operation over a wide range of conditions. 123seminarsonly.com

  18. Materials and Durability • EGR systems may decrease long-term life of the components affected, including the EGR coolers and control valves, the pistons and cylinder heads, exhaust manifolds and sensors • Continuous duty applications may cause materials breakdown, shorter component life, and even unexpected, catastrophic engine failures. 123seminarsonly.com

  19. FUTURE OF EGR • Current Proposal: • Require a functional check of the EGR system: detect a malfunction when the system has reached its control limits such that it cannot achieve the target EGR flow • Require a functional check of the EGR cooling system for proper cooling 123seminarsonly.com

  20. CONCLUSION • Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation Technique in engines, the emissions are vary much controlled due to lesser amounts of NOx entering the atmosphere. • Exhaust Gas Recirculation is a very simple method. It has proven to be very useful and it is being modified further to attain better standards. • This method is very reliable in terms of fuel consumption • EGR is the most effective method for reducing the nitrous oxide emissions from the engine exhaust. 123seminarsonly.com

  21. REFERENCES • http://www.autozine.org • http://www.niehoff.com • http://www.automotive.tno.nl • http://www.yet2.com • http://www.autorepair.about.com • http://www.constructionequipment.com • http://www.fordscorpio.co.uk 123seminarsonly.com

  22. THANK YOU 123seminarsonly.com