Lesson Ten The Green Banana Donald Batchelder
Lesson Ten Part One: Warm-upPart Two: Background InformationPart Three: Text Appreciation (Key Points)Part Four: Language Study (Difficult Points)Part Five: Resource Extension W B T L E
Part oneWarm-up • Warm-up questions
I. Warm-up questions 1. What are your favourite fruits? 2. Do you like bananas?
I. Warm-up questions • 3. Do you know green banana? Do you know the use of green banana? • 4. Do you think all nations have good things to offer to the rest of the world?
Part twoBackgroundInformation • Author and the Text • Ethnocentrism and Other • Related Terms • III. Inter-cultural Understanding • Culture Shock • Tower of Babel
Author and the Text The text is taken from Beyond Experience: An Experiential Approach to Cross-cultural Education edited by Donald Batchelder and Elizabeth G. Warner in 1974.
Author and the Text “If some of the goals of education in modern times are to open up possibilities for discovery and expand learning and the chance for mutual acceptance and recognition in a wider world.
II. Ethnocentrism and other related terms Ethnocentrism Cultural Chauvinism Relativism Racism
II. Ethnocentrism and other related terms • Ethnocentrism • (种族优越论) "Ethnic" refers to cultural heritage, and "centrism" refers to the central starting point or the tendency of people to put their own group at the center. Thus, "ethnocentrism" basically refers to judging other groups from one’s own cultural point of view.
II. Ethnocentrism and other related terms Why are people ethnocentric? It is normal to assume things on the basis of one’s own experience, although it is sometimes wrong. People’s perceptions of colors, time frames, values on industriousness, social roles, and beliefs about Life and the Universe provide important meanings in daily life. Therefore, people’s limited experiences they have already had are the basis for interpreting new experiences, and in the case of others’ behaviors. • Ethnocentrism • (种族优越论)
II. Ethnocentrism and other related terms • Ethnocentrism • (种族优越论) What is the problem with ethnocentrism? Ethnocentrism leads people to make false assumptions about other peoples. People are ethnocentric when they use their cultural norms as a universal yardstick to make generalizations about other peoples' cultures and customs. People of one culture may falsely distort what is meaningful and functional to other peoples through his own tinted glasses. At the best, people simply continue in his unawareness.
II. Ethnocentrism and other related terms • Ethnocentrism • (种族优越论) What can we do about ethnocentrism? Addressing ethnocentrism is not a matter of just trying not to be ethnocentric. Since people will never experience every life situation of everyone around the world, assumptions about life are based on existing limited experience.
II. Ethnocentrism and other related terms • Racism • (种族主义) Racismis the belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others. Sometimes, this term is also used to refer to discrimination or prejudice based on race.
II. Ethnocentrism and other related terms • Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativismis an attempt to understand the cultural development of societies and social groups on their own terms, that is, without trying to impose absolute ideas of moral value or trying to measure different cultural variations in terms of some form of absolute cultural standard. This may be a positive value in terms of interethnic relations. (文化相对主义)
Inter-cultural Understanding Youmay communicate with people that have very different histories, languages, and ways of doing and thinking. They may have a different sense of time, and a different sense of humor. They may have different ways of expressing feelings.
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding China
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Britain
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Egypt
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Greece
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Italy
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Morocco
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Nigeria
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Paris W B T L E
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Russia
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding South Africa
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Switzerland
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Australia
Picture tour of World • Inter-cultural Understanding Greenland
Culture Shock The term, culture shock, was introduced for the first time in 1958 to describe the anxiety produced when a person moves to a completely new environment. This term expresses the lack of direction, the feeling of not knowing what to do or how to do things in a new environment, and not knowing what is appropriate or inappropriate. __
V. Tower of Babel Click the picture for more information.
V. Tower of Babel This allusion is from Old Testament·Genesis 11, indicating a sheer illusion. The whole world had one language and a common speech at the beginning. When people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there. __ __
V. Tower of Babel The Lord came down to see the city and the tower that people were building. The Lord said: “If people speak the same language as they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible.I have to go down and confuse their language so that they cannot understand each other.” __ __
Part threeText Appreciation • Text analysis • 1.General analysis • 2.Theme • 3.Structure • 4.Further discussion • II. Sentence paraphrase
Text Analysis Main idea: author's experience in asmallBrazilian village Setting:a small village in the centralarea of Brazil Characters:an American traveler(“I”), several Brazilian people Theme:go to the next page
Text Analysis Theme We should respect all civilizations in the world. Wisdoms are to be discovered with an open mind to other cultures.
Text AnalysisStructure of the text The experience of the “green bananas”. Part 1 (paras. 1— ) about: Part 2 (paras. — ) about: 4 What the author learned "We should admire all civilizations in the world". 5 8
Text Analysisdiscussions about the text • What is “learning moments”? Have you ever experienced “learning moments”? Have you ever heard of or encountered the experience of cultural differences? List the examples. • The occasion called for some show of recognition on my part. (para. 3) What does this sentence mean? • … trying to show interest if not complete acceptance. (para. 3) Does the author agree with the villagers? W
Text Analysisdiscussions about the text • … its time had come to meet my need. … It was my own time that had come, all in relation to it. (para. 5) “It was my own time” to do what? Why is it, in the author’s opinion, that many useful things remain unknown to us? Who is to blame? • But once a conscious breakthrough to a second center is made, a lifelong perspective and collection can begin. (para. 7) What does he mean by the “second center”? Which is the first center? How can we make a conscious breakthrough to a second center? What does he mean by “perspective” and “collection”?
Text Analysisdiscussions about the text • When the author says we should • leave our own centers of the world, • does he mean we should travel to other • countries more often?
II. Sentence Paraphrase 1 My ancient jeep was straining up through beautiful countryside when the radiator began to leak. (para. 1) to strain: to try very hard radiator: the part of a car which prevents the engine from getting too hot (散热器) the infinitive as object When the radiator started to drip, my old jeep was trying hard to climb up the mountain in the picturesque rural area. go to 2
II. Sentence Paraphrase 2 over-heated: too hot consist of: contain; be made of • The over-heated engine forced me to stop at the next village, which consisted of a small store and a few houses that were scattered here and there. (para. 1) infinitive as object complement Due to the high temperature of the engine, I had to stop at the next village, which contained a small shop and several houses that were loosely distributed. go to 3
II. Sentence Paraphrase 3 He patted me on the shoulder, assuring me that everything would work out. (para. 1) More Examples =patted my shoulder telling me that something is sure to happen or is definitely true He patted my shoulder, confirming that all the things would be resolved. go to 4
II. Sentence Paraphrase Similarly: 1. to wound sb. in the leg= to wound one’s leg 2. to hit sb. at the back= to hit one’s back back to 3
II. Sentence Paraphrase 4 • I did not ask them, though, as that would show my ignorance. (para. 2) an adverbial clause of reason However, I did not inquire about the reason, since it would reveal my lack of knowledge. go to 5
II. Sentence Paraphrase 5 • He, in turn, inspected me carefully, as if to make sure I grasped the significance of his statement. (para. 3) More Examples with the appearance of; apparently • in a proper order The infinitive is used in a set construction. Then he examined me with great caution in the way of ensuring that I understood the importance of his words. go to 6
II. Sentence Paraphrase • 1.He looked as if he had seen a ghost. (followed by a clause) • 2. She cleared her throat as if to speak. (followed by an infinitive) • 3. He was standing by the window as if waiting for somebody. (followed by a present participle)
II. Sentence Paraphrase 6 • I looked to see if he was teasing me, but his face was serious. (para.3) infinitive as adverbial I looked in order to find out whether he was joking, but he seemed deeply earnest. go to 7
II. Sentence Paraphrase 7 • They then refilled my radiator and gave me extra bananas to take along in case my radiator should give me trouble again. (para. 4) infinitive as attribute Then my radiator was filled again by them and I was provided with more bananas as a precaution my radiator should leak again.
II. Sentence Paraphrase 8 The tone is humorous and self-mocking. As a product of American education, I had never paid the slightest attention to the green banana, except to regard it as a fruit whose time had not yet come. (para. 5)