Flowers Are modified twigs adapted primarily for reproduction, which ultimately forms the fruit and the seed.
Parts of a Complete Flower Pistil: Stamen: Stigma Anther Style Filament Ovary Floral envelope or Perianth: Floral stalk: Petal (corolla) Receptacle (torus) Sepal (calyx) Peduncle
Stigma – slightly enlarged tip of the style on which pollen is deposited at pollination Style – a long and thin filament that serves as a passageway for pollen grains to move from the stigma to the ovary Ovary – a swollen basal part of a pistil which carries the ovule or eggs (yellow); where fertilized eggs develop CARPEL (Gynoecium) The female reproductive part of a flower. It is collectively known as the Pistil.
Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) Avocado (Persea sp.) If a gynoecium has a single carpel, it is called Monocarpous or Unicarpellate Gynoecium
Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) Unfused Carpels Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) If a gynoecium has multiple, distinct (free, unfused) carpels, it is apocarpous.
Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) Fused Carpels Tulip (Tulipa sp.) If a gynoecium has multiple carpels fused (connate) into a single structure, it is syncarpous.
Anther – where pollens are formed Filament – a stalk holding the pollen at its tip STAMEN (Androecium) The male reproductive part of a flower
Petal (corolla) – the innermost whorl surrounding the flowers reproductive parts. It is usually brightly colored to attract pollinators Sepal (calyx ) – usually a green leaf-like structure that forms the outermost floral whorl; it protects the inner parts of the flower before it opens. FLORAL ENVELOPE or PERIANTH
FLORAL STALK Receptacle (torus) – thickened part of a stem from which the flower grows Peduncle – a stalk supporting the flower
Variable Features and Structures of Flowers
Color Gerbera daisies (Gerbera sp.) Dutchman's Pipe(Epiphyllumoxypetalum) Day-blooming flowers are generally brightly colored Night-blooming flowers are usually white, creamy or yellowish
Odor Ilang-ilang (Cananga odorata) Corpse flower (Amorphophallus titanum) Flower with stinky odor Flower with fragrant odor
Parts Present • Complete Flowers • flowers are said to be complete when the four main parts (petal, sepal, stamen and carpel) are present • Incomplete Flower • flowers are incomplete when one or more of the main parts are not present
Sexuality • Flowers with both stamen and carpel are called Perfect Flowers. These flowers can also be called bisexual or hermaphroditic flowers. • Flowers that have only either stamen or carpel are called Imperfect Flowers. This flowers can also be called Unisexual flowers. An imperfect flower with only the carpel or pistil is called Pistillate flower. One with the stamen only is a Staminate flower.
Perfect Flower Gumamela (Hibiscus sp.) Chichirica (Catharanthusroseus)
Imperfect Flower - Monoecious • Both male and female flowers are found on the same plant. Corn (Zeamays) Pistillate flower Staminate flower
Imperfect Flower - Dioecious Imperfect flowers are borne on separate plants Papaya (Carica papaya) Pistillate flower Staminate flower
Imperfect Flower - Polygamous • Perfect and imperfect flowers are found in a single plant. Canadian Burnet (Sanguisorba sp.)
Nature of flowers • Flowers are Regular when the members of each set of organs (sepals, petals, stamen and carpels) are of the same size and shape • Flowers are Irregular when some members of one or more sets of organs are different in size or shape or both. Bleeding heart (DicentraSpectabilis)
Regular flower • Members of each set of organs are of the same size and shape Rose (Rosa sp.) Cosmos (Cosmosbipinnatus )
Irregular flower - Papilionaceous • Standard petalor Banner • Outermost and the largest part of the flower • Wingsor Alae • Two lateral petals • Keels or Carinae • Two innermost and smallest petal. Chicharo (Pisumsativum)
Irregular flower - Caesalpinaceous • Wings • Two upper lateral petals • Banner • Innermost and smallest petal • Keel • Two lower lateral petals Caballero (Caesalpiniapulcherrima)
Irregular flower - Bilabiate Upper Lip Lower Lip Snap Dragon (Antirrhinum majus) Sage (salvia officinalis)
Irregular flower - Orchidaceous • Sepals • Three outermost whorl • Petals • Two innermost whorl • LiporLabellum • Also a petal but with different shape and size Cattleya(Cattleya sp.)
Fusion of flowers Connation – when like parts are fused or united Fused filaments Fused petals forming a cone Blue eye grass (Sisyrinchiumatlanticum) Morning Glory (Ipomea sp.)
Adnation– when unlike parts are fused Stamen is adnate to petals Lip is adnate to stamen Crucifix Orchid (Epidendrumsecundum) Angels trumpet (Daturawrightii)
Number of flowers parts Monocot Flower parts are in 3’s or in multiple of 3’s Benguet Lily (Liliaceae sp.) Giant Spiderwort (Tradescantia gigantea)
Dicot Flower parts are in 4’s or 5’s or in multiple of 4’s or 5’s Monkey-flower (Mimuluslewisii) Rosal (Gardenia jasminoides)
Symmetry • Actinomorphic • radial symmetry • flowers can be divided into 2 equal halves along any plane • Zygomorphic • bilateral symmetry • divided into 2 equal halves only by a medial cut through the central axis
Actinomorphic Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa) Water Lily (Nymphaea sp.)
Zygomorphic Dancing ladies (Oncidiumaltissimum) Sword Lily (Gladiolus sp.)
Ovary Position Superior or Hypogynous ovary The sepals and petals are attached below the ovary Kalamansi (Citrofortunellamicrocarpa)
Half-Superior /Half-Inferior or Perigynous The sepals and petals are attached at the side of the ovary Golasiman (Portulacaoleracea) ovary
Ground Orchid (Spathoglottisplicata) ovary Squash (Cucurbita sp.) Inferior or Epigynous ovary The sepals and petals are attached above the ovary
Placentation The places where the ovules are attached in the ovary are known as placentae. The arrangement of the placentae inside the ovary is called placentation
Axile The placentae are found at the central axis of a compound ovary ovaries with ovules Tomato (Solanumlycopersicum)
Parietal The placentae are found on the wall of a compound ovary . ovaries with ovules Cucumber (Cucumissativus)
Marginal The placentae are located on the wall of a single ovary. A single ovary has one chamber or locule. ovary with ovules String Beans (Phaseolusvulgaris)
Basal The placentae with a single ovule is found more or less at the base of the ovary ovaries with ovules Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemums indicum)
Inflorescence Flower clusters are called inflorescence. These may differ in the number of flowers borne, the sequence of flower maturation, the length of flower stalks, the number and arrangement of the floral branches or peduncles.
Spike An inflorescence has an elongated axis with sessile (without pedicel) florets Bottle brush (Callistemon lanceolatus) Pancit-pancita (Peperomiapellucida)
Raceme Aloe vera (Aloe vera) Golden Shower (Laburnum anagyroides) The elongated axis is unbranched. The flowers are provided with stalks or pedicles of equal lengths and are called pedicellate flowers.
Panicle The elongated axis is branched. Flowers are pedicellate, opening all at the same time Rice (Oriza sativa) Tigbi (Coixlachryma-jobi)
Corymb Caballero (Caesalpiniapulcherrima) Yarrow (Achilleamillefolium) It has a more or less flat convex top because of the pedicels bearing the outer, older flowers are longer than the younger flowers at the center.
Umbel The axis is short so that all the pedicellate flowers radiate from the apex of the axis. Simple Japanese bamboo (Dracaena surculosa) Compound Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucuscarota)
Cyme This inflorescence is similar to a corymb except that the inner pedicelled flowers open first Santan(Ixora sp.) Shanghai beauty (Jatrophapandurifolia)
A fleshy spike (spadix) bearing both male and female flowers, surrounded by a petaloid bract called the spathe. Spadix spadix spathe Anthurium(Anthuriumandreanum) Calla Lily (Zantedeschia sp.)
Belembe Silvestre (Xanthosoma helleborifolium) Syngonium (Syngoniumschottianum) male florets female florets
Catkin/ Ament Copper plant (Acalyphawilkesiana) Cat’s Tail (Acalyphahispida) This inflorescence is a special type of spike which is hanging or drooping . The flowers are usually unisexual.
Birds of Paradise (Strelitzia sp.) The pedicelled or sessile flowers are crowded at one side of the stem Fascicle Deerweed (Lotus scoparius)