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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

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  1. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Chapter 13 Maintaining Windows

  2. Chapter Concepts • Setting up and performing scheduled preventive maintenance tasks to keep Windows healthy • Preparing for disaster by keeping good backups of user data and Windows system files • The directory structures used by Windows • Managing files and folders • Using Windows utilities to manage hard drives A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  3. Scheduled Preventive Maintenance • Preventive maintenance • Alleviates slow computer performance • Tasks • Verifying Windows settings • Defragmenting the hard drive • Checking drive for errors • Reducing startup processes to essentials • Techniques for freeing up hard drive space A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  4. Verify Critical Windows Settings • Help user by explaining: • Importance of Automatic Windows updates • How to manually check for and install updates • Verify updates and service packs installed • Verify Windows Updates is configured correctly • Reasons automatic updates sometimes not set • Slow Internet connection • Lack of trust • Verify updates before installation • Know if update applies to the system A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  5. Vista Critical Windows Settings • From Start, right-click Computer and select Properties from the shortcut menu • In the System window • Verify that all service packs have been installed • View updates waiting to be installed • Select updates to install • Verify that Windows installs updates • Verify that anti-virus software is up to date A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  6. Vista Verification Steps Figure 13-2 Important Windows updates are not installed

  7. Change Settings link from the Windows Update window

  8. Windows XP/2000 Critical Settings • Windows XP verification steps • 1. View service packs installed • 2. View and manually install updates • 3. View how Windows XP installs updates • Windows 2000 verification steps • 1. Install updates • Click Start and Click Windows Updates • Verify antivirus software is up to date A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  9. Windows XP/2000 Critical Settings • Right-click My Computer • General tab shows Service Pack info • Automatic Updates tab configures update timing A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  10. Clean Up the Hard Drive • Windows requires some hard drive free space • Normal operation, defragmenting drives, burning CDs and DVDs, and other tasks • 2-3 GB minimum free space for efficient operation • Delete unneeded files occasionally • Determining hard drive free space • From My Computer, right-click drive, select Properties • Using Disk Cleanup utility (Vista and XP) • Run cleanmgr.exe in Start Search box • Use My Computer, Properties box, General tab A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  11. Clean Up the Hard Drive (cont’d.) • Delete temporary files • Windows.old folder • Delete if user no longer needs the data • Freeing up more disk space • Uninstall software • Click More Options tab on the Disk Cleanup box • Click Clean up in Programs and Features area • Delete all but the most recent restore points A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  12. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  13. Hard Drive Geometry • Types of hard drives • Solid state drive (SSD) or solid state device (SSD) • No moving parts • Built using nonvolatile flash memory • Expensive technology • Magnetic hard drive • One, two, or more platters, or disks • Stacked together, spinning in unison inside a sealed metal housing • Firmware controls data reading, writing and motherboard communication • Hybrid hard drives use both technologies A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  14. Six hard disk drives with cases opened showing platters and heads. 16, 8, 5.25, 3.5, 2.5, and 1.8 inch disk diameters are shown -- From Wikipedia

  15. Figure 8-3 A hard drive with two platters A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  16. Data Organization on a Hard Drive • Hard drive disk surface divided into concentric circles (tracks) • Each track divided into 512-byte sectors • 512-bytes is a historical standard for magnetic hard disks • Some systems have varied this number • Optical disk standard sector is 2048-bytes • Cylinder: All tracks the same distance from platter’s center • Cluster: a group of sectors; the smallest logical amount of space that can be allocated to hold a file A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  17. Disk structure showing a track (A), a sector (B) and a sector of track (C) and a cluster of sectors(D) -- Wikipedia

  18. Hard Drive Access Time Time required to retrieve requested data from a hard drive • Access time = spin-up time + seek time + rotational delay + transfer time • Spin-up time: time required to accelerate the disk to operating speed • Seek time: time required for the access arm to reach the desired track • Rotational delay: time required for the disk to spin the desired sector under the access arm • Transfer time: time to actually transfer data A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  19. Defrag the Hard Drive • Fragmentation • Files fragmented in segments all over the drive • Reasons to defragment • Read-write head moves all over to retrieve a file • Data-recovery utilities may not work on severely fragmented files • Defragment when user not using the PC • May take anywhere from an hour to overnight • Vista default • Automatic defrag every Wednesday at 1:00 AM • Need about 15% free space to defrag A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  20. Defrag the Hard Drive (cont’d.) The Properties box for a drive allows you to manage the Disk Defragmenter A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  21. Defrag the Hard Drive (cont’d.) Windows XP defragmenting a volume A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  22. Check the Hard Drive for Errors • Chkdsk utility • Searches for bad sectors on a volume • Recovers data if possible • Error checking and repair time • Potentially long depending on drive size and files • To launch Chkdsk utility in Vista or XP • My Computer drive Properties box, Tools tab • Chkdsk command in a command prompt window A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  23. Windows repairs hard drive errors; accessed from the drive’s Properties A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  24. Reducing Startup Processes to Essentials • Problem with too may startup programs • Slow system startup, sluggish system, startup errors • Software programs sometimes add themselves to automatic startup list • Startup locations • Shortcut or program file in a startup folder • Registry entry • Scheduled Task list entry • Problem solution • Remove unnecessary programs A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  25. Reducing Startup Processes to Essentials • Windows Vista startup folders • For individual users: • C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup • For all users: • C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Program\Startup • Software Explorer • View and stop Vista startup programs • Control Panel, Programs, Change startup programs • In Category dropdown menu, select Startup Programs A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  26. Use Vista Software Explorer to find out what programs are launched at startup A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  27. Programs launched at startup on a barebones Vista system A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  28. Reducing Startup Processes to Essentials • Windows XP startup folders • For individual users: • C:\Documents and Settings\username\StartMenu\Programs\Startup • For all users: • C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Program\Startup • Manually look for unnecessary software • Uninstall with Control Panel, Add or Remove Programs applet A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  29. Free Up Additional Hard Drive Space • My Computer, drive Properties displays drive free space • No set minimum free space for Vista • Rule of thumb • Shoot for 15 percent of drive free • Move data to other drives or devices • Use NTFS drive or folder compression A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  30. Free Up Additional Hard Drive Space • Reorganize folders and volumes • Move applications to another volume • Most require reinstall • Move virtual memory paging file • Windows Pagefile.sys • Virtual memory enhancing amount of system RAM • Hidden file stored in C drive root directory • Move to another partition on same or different drive • New drive speed should be equal to or greater than existing drive, or performance will suffer A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  31. Manage virtual memory using the System Properties box A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  32. Move Pagefile.sys to a different drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  33. Free Up Additional Hard Drive Space • Limit space used by Internet Explorer (IE) • In IE, select menu item Tools, Internet Options • Reduce IE cache file space • Move cache folder to a second volume (if available) • Set IE to empty cache folder when browser closes • If more space is still needed, add another hard drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  34. Figure 13-17 Allocate hard drive space to be used for temporary Internet files Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning Figure 13-18 Set Internet Explorer not to keep a cache after the browser is closed Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  35. Backup Procedures • Backup: copy of a data or software file • Use if original file becomes damaged or destroyed • Ways to lose data • System failure, virus, file corruption, or some other problem • Never trust important data to only one media • Only work without backup as long as you are willing to work to replace lost data • Some data can’t be replaced with ANY amount of work! A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  36. Planning For Disaster Recovery • Points for a backup and recovery plan • Decide on backup media • Consider purchasing third-party backup software • Easier to use • Offers more features than Microsoft utility • Use a selective backup plan • Determine what needs backed up: Entire system? Applications? Data? • Back up after every four to ten hours of data entry A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  37. Types of Backups Concept: the file archive attribute is turned on if a file is created or changed, and turned off when the file is backed up. • Full (also called normal): all desired files are completely copied; archive attribute is turned off • Incremental: all files that have been changed since the last full or incremental backup are copied; archive attribute is turned off. To recover, restore the full backup and all incrementals • Differential: all files that have been changed since the last full backup are copied; archive attribute not turned off. To recover, restore the full backup and the most recent differential Trade-offs: incremental takes less time to back up, more time to restore; differential takes more time to back up, less time to restore A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  38. Generational Backups Concept: only keeping one copy of a backup is dangerous; a corrupted file is copied to the backup as is • Some number of backups are kept (3? 5? 12?) • Referred to as “grandfathering” • Assuming bad file is caught before too much time has passed, can go to a backup where the file is still good A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  39. Planning For Disaster Recovery (cont’d.) • Points for a backup and recovery plan (cont’d.) • Record regular backups in a log • Folders or drives backed up • Date of the backup • Type of backup • Label identifying tape, disk, or other media • First time backup • Verify backup tape disks • Verify successful recovery of data • Keep backups in a safe place • Routinely test A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  40. Back Up User Data • Windows Vista backup utility • Connect backup device to PC • Control Panel, System and Maintenance, Back up your computer • Backup and Restore Center window • Click Back up files and respond to the UAC box • Select where to save backup and click Next • Select volumes containing folders or files to back up • Select type of files to back up • Select back up frequency • Click Save settings and start backup A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  41. Back Up User Data (cont’d.) • Windows Vista file restore • 1. Open Backup Status and Configuration window • 2. Click Restore Files and follow directions • Windows Vista backup issues • Provides little control over the folders • Many turn to third-party backup utilities • Regardless of technique, also • Back up e-mail messages and address book • Back up Internet Explorer favorites list A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  42. Back Up User Data (cont’d.) • Windows 2000/XP Ntbackup.exe utility • 1. Open Backup Wizard and click Advanced Mode • 2. Within the Backup utility, click Backup tab • To perform immediate backup check the drive and subfolders • 3. Change backup destination location (if desired) • 4. Click Start Backup button in the lower-right corner A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  43. Figure 13-25 Backup or Restore Wizard Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning Figure 13-26 You can perform an immediate backup from the Backup tab Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  44. Back Up User Data (cont’d.) • Windows 2000/XP scheduled backup options • Full backup (normal backup) • Copy backup • Incremental backup • Differential backup • Daily backup • Two best ways to schedule backups • Combination of full backups and incremental backups • Combination of full backups and differential backups A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  45. Back Up User Data (cont’d.) • Windows 2000/XP backup schedule • 1. Open backup utility, click Schedule Jobs tab, select date to schedule a backup, click Add Job button • 2. Backup Wizard opens, click Next • Select Back up selected files, drives, or network data, click Next • 3. Select drives, folders, files to back up, click Next A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  46. Back Up User Data (cont’d.) • Windows 2000/XP backup schedule (cont’d.) • 4. Choose where to save the backup, a back up name and type • 5. Make decisions on verifying data, compressing the data, and appending the data • 6. Select perform back up later • 7. Use Schedule Job window to select how often backup occurs • 8. Click Next in the wizard and follow remaining instructions A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  47. Back Up User Data (cont’d.) Figure 13-28 Schedule repeated backups A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  48. Back Up System Files • System Restore • Restores system to a restore point • Restore point • Condition at time a snapshot taken • System Restore turned on • Windows automatically creates a restore point • Before new software or hardware installed or when changes are made to system • Can manually create restore point at any time A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  49. Figure 13-29 Manually create a restore point A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

  50. Back Up System Files (cont’d.) • Keep system protection turned on • Creates restore points at regular intervals • Also just before new software or hardware installed • Restore point information: • Normally kept in folder C:\System Volume • Not accessible to the user • Taken at least every 24 hours • Can use up to 15 percent of disk space • Older restore points deleted as new ones are made • When disk space is low, restore points no longer made A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e