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Persuasive writing

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  1. Persuasive writing What is persuasive writing?

  2. Persuasive writing is… • An essay which tries to convince a reader to believe what you believe about a certain topic.

  3. Do: Divide into 5 paragraphs Have a thesis statement in your introduction Come up with 3 main points to support your argument—these will be your 3 body paragraphs Have a conclusion that contains a clincher statement Come up with a catchy title Don’t Begin with “hello my name is___ and I’m going to write about____” Take out the word I (instead of I think we shouldn’t wear uniforms say “Uniforms shouldn’t be required” Be wishy washy. Pick a side. Forget to support your opinions with facts and example Some DOS and DON’Ts

  4. Stages of writing • Prewriting (brainstorming) • Rough draft (pencil) • Revising/editing • Final draft (in pen)

  5. Brainstorming • Hamburger

  6. These are things that make a fabulous persuasive essay • A terrific title • A thought provoking thesis statement • An interesting introduction with a hook • 3 banging body paragraphs with innovative ideas • Tremendous transition words between paragraphs • A killer conclusion with a clincher statement

  7. What is a thesis statement? • A thesis statement is one sentence at the end of your introduction that states your opinion. It needs to be strong.

  8. Which one is thought provoking? • This essay describes the difference between being a student and being a scholar. • School board policy should be changed in order to implement cell phones into the curriculum.

  9. An interesting introduction with a hook • Never say “Hello….blah blah” or “This essay will be about…” BORING! • You never get a second chance to make a first impression. • Some techniques we will learn about: • Anecdote • Riddles • Fragment technique • Quotations • Shocking statement

  10. ANECDOTE • A short story within an introduction to make the point clear. • Example: • Sally got out of bed, and looked at the alarm clock. She was running late! She would have to hurry to catch the bus. This was one of those days that she was glad that her school had a uniform policy…she wouldn’t have to waste much time picking out an outfit.

  11. Riddles • Get your reader’s attention with a challenging thought. • What’s plain, and boring? What makes all students in a school building look the same and lose their individuality? If you guessed UNIFORMS, you’re correct!

  12. Fragment technique • Uses 3 short fragments to create an image. • Example: • A brand new fishing pole, a bucket of worms, and a warm spring day! These things were present on the day I caught a record-breaking keeper.

  13. Quotations • Conversational “Mom, I’ve signed up to fight for my country!” • Famous Quote "War is nothing without a solider to fight it."- Unknown

  14. Shocking statements Provides statistics or facts that startles readers to pull them into your story. • ExampleCan you believe that over 90% of students polled at our school are dissatisfied with school lunch, but only 5% are willing to pack their own lunches?

  15. 3 banging body paragraphs with innovative ideas • You should come up with three points to support your opinion • Each of the points will be turned into a body paragraph • Try to think of ideas that no one else would think of

  16. 3 banging body paragraphs with innovative ideas (an example) • Your school has a uniform policy. Some people argue that uniforms in schools are beneficial because they cause less distractions, and some argue that they are not a good idea because they take away a student’s individuality. Do you agree or disagree with uniform policy? Make sure to support your position

  17. 3 banging body paragraphs with innovative ideas (an example) • Thesis: Uniform policies are beneficial in schools, and should be implemented nationwide. Reason 1: Allows for less bullying based on wardrobe. Reason 2: Students will concentrate more on school and less on attire. Reason 3: It cuts down on cost of school clothes and time spent getting ready in the morning.

  18. Tremendous transition words • Transition words move from one thought to the next • Usually at the beginning of 3 body paragraphs • Avoid the same weak transition words (first, next, last)

  19. Transition Words (Connection Words) • Example: • One such, another • For instance, for example • Addition: • Similarly, additionally • Another, yet another • Also, furthermore • Moreover • In addition • Opposition : • But, though, however • On the other hand • Conversely • Yet, above all • Nonetheless, nevertheless • Chronological: • First, second, third • Next, then • After • Following • Cause-Effect: • So, thus • Therefore, hence • Consequently • Due to

  20. Transition Practice #1 • Come up with at least three reasons to persuade the reader using as many transition words as you can: What kind of animal makes the best pet?

  21. Transition Practice #2 • What is the best kind of music?

  22. A killer conclusion with a clincher statement • Clincher statement is the last line of your paper. It should almost shock your reader. • Conclusion leaves a lasting impression…

  23. A killer conclusion with a clincher statement • In conclusion, over 95% of parents polled are in agreement with a school wide uniform policy. Uniforms allow students to be who they are, not what they wear. After all, shouldn’t school be about academics rather than apparel? It’s time our nation got back to reading, writing, and arithmetic….not Baby Phat, Apple Bottom, and FUBU.

  24. A review… • What are some dos? • What are some don’ts? • What are these things… • A terrific title • A thought provoking thesis statement • An interesting introduction with a hook • Anecdote • Riddles • Fragment technique • Quotations • Shocking statement • 3 banging body paragraphs with innovative ideas • Tremendous transition words between paragraphs • A killer conclusion with a clincher statement

  25. Writing situation appears first Writing SituationThe Department of Education is considering a ban on the use of cell phones in public schools. Students would not be able to bring phones into school buildings for any reason. Many teachers and school administrators approve of the plan because they believe that cell phones are a distraction and disrupt class. Students and parents, on the other hand, feel that schools are limiting the ability of parents and children to keep in touch in case of emergencies. Writing Directions Write a letter to your principal either supporting or opposing the cell-phone ban. Provide convincing reasons and specific examples to support your position.

  26. Persuasive Writing Activity #1 • A thesis statement is a one-sentence statement about your topic that is written in the opening paragraph. • One major purpose: predict what will follow for reader and writer • Provides writer with purpose and direction • Creates expectations for reader about form and content

  27. Select the thesis statement: • Physical education is a class at our school. • Physical education is a valuable class at our school. • School uniforms rob individuals of their right to self expression. • More and more schools are turning to the use of school uniforms. • The local middle school principal requires students to stay one hour after school to complete homework assignments. • The local middle school principal unfairly requires students to stay one hour after school to complete homework assignments.

  28. A thesis statement is something that remains to be proved It commits the writer to showing the reader that it’s founded upon good evidence and sound reasoning. (shown that you know what you’re talking about and that you have thoroughly thought through the issues. Persuasive Writing Activity #2

  29. Why do I believe this statement to be true? What have I seen or done or read or heard that caused me to make this statement? Step 1

  30. Step 2 • Thesis Statement: • Drug education should be a part of the curriculum for every student in middle and high school. • Brainstorm: • 1. • 2. • 3.

  31. Persuasive Writing Activity #8 • When writing the Persuasive Essay, the writer must strive to make his or her reasons appealing • This appeal must be to the readers’ sense of logic, emotions, ethics (sense of right and wrong)

  32. Step 1 • Statement of Opinion: • Throwing away recyclable materials is a bad habit that can be easily changed into a good one. • Logic: • Many things you use around the house are recyclable. • Emotions: • Getting into the habit of recycling will make you feel good about yourself. • Ethics: • We all have a responsibility to recycle.

  33. Step 2 • Statement of Opinion: • Unwanted puppies that are brought to the animal shelter should not be put to sleep. • Logic/Good reason to support: • These helpless creatures have harmed no one. • Emotions/Vivid Image: • They are often brought in trembling with their tails tucked between their legs and their eyes looking upward in fear. • Ethics/Right & Wrong: • Given the chance to be adopted, these puppies can become wonderful pets.

  34. Step 3 • Statement of Opinion: • Students should be allowed to watch only one hour of television per day. • Logic: • Emotions: • Ethics:

  35. Now… • For the following prompt, create • A terrific title • An interesting introduction with a hook • A killer conclusion with a clincher statement

  36. Writing situation appears first Writing SituationThe Department of Education is considering a ban on the use of cell phones in public schools. Students would not be able to bring phones into school buildings for any reason. Many teachers and school administrators approve of the plan because they believe that cell phones are a distraction and disrupt class. Students and parents, on the other hand, feel that schools are limiting the ability of parents and children to keep in touch in case of emergencies. Writing Directions Write a letter to your principal either supporting or opposing the cell-phone ban. Provide convincing reasons and specific examples to support your position.

  37. Title is generic and ineffective. Opening presents opinion but contains grammatical errors, vague statements, and circular reasoning. Conclusion includes irrelevant ideas and lacks a call to action. Assignment: For a monthly newsletter called Student Voices, write a two-paragraph editorial that exposes a problem or injustice and encourages readers to take corrective action. My Editorial I think that its bad to have ads in school because there just wrong. There’s too much ads anyway in the world on tv and on billboards and we should get the chance to go to school without them. Some schools like my cousins have tvs in them now and they learn from watching tv programs. Some of them are made by big companys that just want you to buy stuff. I don’t like to watch tv really at home even and I sure don’t think we need to have it at school. It gives me a headache and makes me want to sleep. Most of the ads are so dumb and repeat all the time, they just ruin the 1 or 2 shows I like anyway.

  38. Summary: This piece attempts to respond to the prompt by including the writer’s opinion about advertising in school, but the editorial lacks a clear argument, central claim, and purpose for writing. Also, the piece presents irrelevant statements and doesn’t provide any supporting examples or a call to action. The writing could be improved by revising it to add specific, relevant evidence presented in a logical order and by stating a clear central claim and call to action. The writing also could be improved by paying greater attention to persuasive language and by eliminating errors in spelling and grammar. This piece would probably receive a 1 if evaluated by the holistic scoring method. It might receive a 63 if evaluated by the analytic scoring method—21 points for Focus/Organization, 22 points for Elaboration/Support/Style, and 20 points for Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics.

  39. Opening identifies a problem but lacks direct, powerful language and specific examples. Some potentially powerful arguments, but grammatical errors make the arguments confusing Call to action is not clearly stated. No Advertising in Schools According to Principal Marshall we get approached all the time by big name companies that want to sponsor things in our schools. So far they’ve said no, and I think that’s great. But soon the school boards elections are coming up and some people running don’t think advertising in the school is a bad thing. Lots of schools do it because they need the money. The buget is cut we’ve got to make up the money somewhere. I think that this is wrong. School is a place where you go to learn not buy stuff. I think it’s an insult to try to make them buy things instead of just learn things. Students are not just customers. Plus, they lie and say things like fast food is good for you or these athletic shoes make you play better sports. There just not true and we're not supposed to be learning lies in school, are we? If you agree with me, come to a community meeting.

  40. Summary: This piece attempts to use logical reasoning and to address opposing arguments, but the editorial’s central claim is not clearly stated and the writing lacks adequate supporting evidence. Also, the word choices used within the argument are not particularly powerful or specific. The writing could be improved by revising it to include a more directly stated central claim, by using specific language with connotations that support the writer’s argument, by adding relevant examples and other evidence, and by elaborating on the call to action. • This piece would probably receive a 2 if evaluated by the holistic scoring method. • It might receive a 77 if evaluated by the analytic scoring method—28 points for Focus/Organization, 25 points for Elaboration/Support/Style, and 24 points for Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics.

  41. Opening presents a school-related problem. Includes specific, relevant examples States the central claim in words that have strong connotations Urges readers to take a specific action Just Say No What do fast-food restaurants, automobile manufacturers, and athletic shoe companies have in common? Soon they all might be advertising not just in the streets and on TV but right in your classroom or the classroom of your kids. More and more schools are letting in advertisers because school budgets are being cut, administrators need to make ends meet, and companies see students as giant dollar signs. The advertising that companies try to feed students can be obvious, such as a sign in the hallway or a free book jacket covered with a soft-drink company’s logo. But advertising also can be subtle, such as when an athletic shoe company pays to install a new scoreboard in the basketball gym or an automobile company sponsors a video about the benefits of cars. According to Principal Marshall, our school district is approached all the time with proposals for corporate sponsorship of one event or another. So far the district has said no. But the school board elections are coming up, and several candidates have said they don’t have a problem with allowing advertising in our schools. But I do. I think it’s insulting that a corporation could buy its way into our classrooms. Our school should be a place where students can really learn, not someplace where advertisers can manipulate students. If you don’t want your school cluttered with invasive ads for junk food and athletic shoes, come to the open community meeting this Thursday at 7 P.M. and make sure our new school board candidates hear your voice on this important issue. Hope to see you there!

  42. Summary: This piece presents a persuasive argument against advertising in the schools through the use of strong rhetoric and sound logical reasoning. The editorial briefly addresses opposing arguments and uses direct, forceful language to support its own central claim. The conclusion leaves readers with a convincing argument and a clear call to action. • This piece would probably receive a 4 if evaluated by the holistic scoring method. • It might receive a 97 if evaluated by the analytic scoring method—34 points for Focus/Organization, 33 points for Elaboration/Support/Style, and 30 points for Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics.