Two principles down, two to go… • So far we’ve learned how to apply two cognitive principles to e-learning: • Multimedia principle? • Include both words and graphics • Contiguity principle? • Place text near corresponding graphics • Next, we’ll apply two more principles: • Modality principle: put words in spoken form • Redundancy principle: don’t put same words in both speech and text
Design dilemma(Clark & Mayer, e-Learning, chapter 5, pp. 85-86) • Project sponsor tells course designer to “get rid of all that [narration] audio” • Why would she say that? • How should the course designer react? • “Let me look into it” (resolves to look into theory and research about audio)
The Modality Principle • Put words in spoken rather than graphic form, when graphic or animation is in focus • Why? • Cognitive theory of learning: • Separate information processing channels for visual and auditory/verbal processing • Capacity of each channel is limited • Graphics and onscreen text compete for attention • Overloads visual channel • Instead, use both auditory and visual channels
Modality effect • People learn more lessons with concurrent speech than just text alone • 64% vs. 36% correct on post-test • Are you impressed? • Would project sponsor be convinced? • Is it worth the extra work of audio production? • When is audio less effective?
Redundancy principle • VP: “We need to accommodate different learning styles: add text to the screen for those who learn better from reading.” • Is she right? Why or why not? • Redundancy doesn’t help: people learn more from audio alone than audio plus text explaining graphics or animation
Learning styles hypothesis • Some have visual, others auditory style • Therefore present both, to accommodate both learning styles • What do you think of this hypothesis? • This hypothesis is a special case of information delivery theory: people learn by adding information to memory • Mind is an empty vessel to be filled with info • So redundant presentation puts more info in mind • Cognitive theory: each channel is limited • Redundant text could overload visual channel
More redundancy principles • Avoid presenting words as narration and identical text • Special cases for narration of text: • No pictorial representation on a screen • Slow pace of presentation • Helping learners with disabilities or non-native speakers • Learners who may not have access to speakers or headsets • How is The Universal Computer different from The Universal Machine (because of this principle)?
One minute paper: • What principles of cognitive e-Learning principles have you learned so far? • How can you apply at least one of them in your project design?