AP European History Review Renaissance – French Revolution
Black Death and Social Crisis Famine and Population • Little Ice Age • Drop in temp and change in weather patterns • Resulted in crop failures and famine • Killed approx. 10% of European Population • Famine led to chronic malnutrition • People were more susceptible to disease
The Black Death • Bubonic plague • Spread by rats carrying infected fleas • Pneumonic plague • Deadlier version which spread to the lungs • Spread of the Plague • * The plague originated in Asia • * Mongol troops came in contact with European trade routes • * Flea infested rats came back to Italian port cities on merchant ships (1347) • European Population declined by 25-50% between 1347 and 1351
Life and Death: Reactions to the Plague • Surrounded with death, some people began living for the moment • Others thought the plague was punishment from God or the work of the Devil • Flagellants – whipped themselves to win forgiveness from and angry God • Blamed Jews for the spread of the disease • Pogroms – organized Jewish massacres
Noble Landlords and Peasants • The Plague caused a severe labor shortage • Led to a rise in wages (basic supply and demand) • Population declined and so did demand for agriculture = drop in prices for agriculture • Standard of living for nobles decreased while peasants increased • English Parliament passed Statute of Laborers (1351) • Attempted to limit wages to pre-plague levels • Wage restrictions and government taxes angered the peasants
To what extent were climate and disease key factors in producing economic and social changes in the Late Middle Ages?
Political Instability • Lord-serf relationship changed to wage earners • Lord-vassal relationship changed from military service (think of knights) • Paid scutage (money payments) • Allowed monarchy to hire professional soldiers • Created factions amongst nobles
Heirs to the French, English and German thrones were not clear descendents • To gain support for their coronation, they had to offer favors, land and money to noble factions for their support • Paying for mercenary soldiers left the monarchies strapped for cash • To generate money, they had to tax which required the approval of parliament in most cases. • This opened the door for parliament to gain more power and prestige
Decline of the Church • King Phillip IV of France tried to tax the French clergy • Pope Boniface VIII said a secular ruler had no right to tax the clergy without the pope’s consent • Unam Sanctam (1302) papal bull • Statement of supremacy of the church over the state • Pope Boniface VIII also excommunicated Phillip IV • Phillip IV sent troops and captured Pope Boniface • Italian nobles rescued the pope but he died shortly after • King Phillip IV of France influenced the college of cardinals • Elected Clement V as pope • Clement V moved papal residence from Vatican City to Avignon
Papacy at Avignon • Remained there for 72 years • Created a specialized bureaucracy to obtain new revenue for the church • Elected 134 new cardinals, 113 were French • Avignon papacy became a symbol of church corruption
The Great Schism • Catherine of Siena (a mystic) seemed to have convinced Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome • He died soon after his return • Italians pressured French cardinals to elect an Italian pope – Pope Urban VI • French cardinals got home • Elected Clement VII as pope • Pope Clement VII returned to Avignon • Great Schism 1378-1417 • Period with two popes • Two popes split Europe along alliances • England and her allies – Rome Pope Urban VI • France and her allies - Avignon Pope Clement VII • Both factions increased taxation and corruption to raise revenue
What were the main causes of the Great Schism? What were the major results of this great political and religious conflict?
Vernacular Literature • Latin was the language of the clergy and educated nobility • Vernacular refers to the common regional language • Dante - Divine Comedy • Story of the soul’s progression to salvation • 3 act poem – hell, purgatory, and heaven
What was the significance of artists writing in the vernacular language?
Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian Renaissance • Renaissance = Rebirth • Rebirth of antiquity – Greco-Roman civilization • Jacob Burkhardt • Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) • Portrayed Italy as the birthplace of the modern world • Urban Society • City-states dominated political, economic, & social life • Age of Recovery • Effects of Black Death, political disorder, economic recession • Emphasis on individual ability • New social ideal of a well rounded or universal person • Wealthy upper class, not a mass movement
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) • The Prince (1513) • Realistic examination political rule • Acquisition, maintenance and expansion of political power • Prince should act on behalf of the state, not his conscience • Cesare Borgia • Pope Alexander VI son • Perfect model for the The Prince
The Italian States in the Renaissance • Five Major Powers • Milan • Francesco Sforza takes control • Viscontis and Sforzas created a centralized state and collected large tax revenues • Venice • Ruled by an oligarchy of merchant aristocrats • Maritime power which looked to expand to mainland to secure food sources • Florence • Cosimo Medici (1434-1464) (made money in banking) • Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-1492) • Republican form of Gov, but controlled by Medici family • The Papal States • Weakened by the Great Schism • Looked to regain control over Urbino, Bologna, & Ferrara • Kingdom of Naples • Controlled by monarchy and a population of poor peasants • Did not experience the Renaissance like the rest of Italy
What was the relation between art and politics in Renaissance Italy?
Italian Renaissance Humanism • Classical Revival (Greco-Roman classics) • Individualism and Secularism were two characteristics of the Renaissance • Renaissance was a movement of the elite, not the masses • Petrarch (1304 – 1374) • Characterized the Middle Ages as dark • Promoted studying the classics • Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy • Study of Ancient Greek and Roman writers • Leonardo Bruni (1370 – 1444) • New Cicero • Renaissance Ideal – duty of an intellectual to be active for one’s state Civic Humanism – fusion of political action and literary creation • Lorenzo Valla (1407 – 1457) • Wrote Elegances of the Latin Language • Wanted to restore Latin as proper language over the vernacular • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463 – 1494), Oration on the Dignity of Man – Human Potential (people could be whatever they chose or willed)
Education, History, and the Impact of Printing • Education in the Renaissance • Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music, physical education (martial arts) • Purpose was to create individuals who followed a path of virtue and wisdom & could influence others to do the same • Education of women • Few women got an education • Ones who did got an education focusing on religion and morals • Aim of education was to create a complete citizen • Humanism and History • Periodization of history (ancient world, dark ages, present time) • Secularization – took religious events out of history • Guicciardini (1483 – 1540), History of Italy, History of Florence • Examined evidence supporting historical events
The Impact of Printing • Johannes Gutenberg • Movable type (1445 – 1450) • Gutenberg’s Bible (1455 or 1456) • The spread of printing • By 1500, more than 1000 printers in Europe • Became one of Europe’s largest industries • Printing of books encouraged development of research • More laymen (regular people) became literate
Art in the Early Renaissance • Primary goal of artists was imitation of nature • Masaccio (1401 – 1428) • Took up where Giotto left off • Frescoes are regarded as first masterpieces of the Early Renaissance • Perspective and Organization (use of math in art) • Movement and Anatomical Structure (study of the human form) • Paolo Uccelo (1397 – 1475) • The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian • Sandro Botticelli (1445 – 1510) • Primavera • Donato di Donatello (1386 – 1466) • David • First free standing nude bronze sculpture since antiquity • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446) • The Cathedral of Florernce – finished the dome • Church of San Lorenzo
The Artistic High Renaissance • Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) • Last Supper • Showed personality and relationship to Jesus through the apostles reaction “one of you will betray me” • Raphael (1483 – 1520) • Known for his madonnas • School of Athens – imaginary gathering of ancient philosophers • Michelangelo (1475 – 1564) • The Sistine Chapel • Told the story of the fall of man • David – marble sculpture
The Northern Artistic Renaissance • Northern Renaissance artists • Less mastery of perspective • Emphasis on illuminated manuscripts & wooden panel painting • Did not portray the human body like Italian counterparts • Jan van Eyck (c. 1380 – 1441) • Most influential Northern Renaissance artist • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride • Albrecht Dürer (1471 – 1528) • Adoration of the Magi
Prelude to Reformation • Christian or Northern Renaissance Humanism • Christian Humanists • Northern Renaissance Goal-reform of Christianity • Focus on sources of Christianity • Holy Scriptures & writings of Church fathers • Found early religion simpler • Desiderius Erasmus (1466 – 1536) • Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503)-showed his preoccupation with religion • “The Philosophy of Christ”-stressed inner piety over external religion such as sacraments, pilgrimages, fasts, veneration of saints, and relics • The Praise of Folly (1511) – criticism of the church • Wanted reform from within the church • Understand the philosophy of Jesus • Enlightened education in early Christianity • “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched” • Erasmus would eventually disapprove of Luther and the Protestant reformers • Erasmus wanted to reform the church from within rather than split it up
What was Christian humanism and how did it help prepare the way for the Protestant Reformation? • Did Erasmus’ works pave the way for Luther’s break with Rome and Catholicism?
Thomas More (1478-1535) • Well educated – worked for English government as Lord Chancellor • Friends with English humanists including Erasmus • Wrote Utopia (1516) Greek for Nowhere, set in an imaginary island near the new world Based on communal ownership rather than private property Citizens enjoyed abundant leisure time • More saw corruption first hand serving King Henry VIII Opposed Henry VIII’s divorce and break with the Catholic church • Thomas More was executed in 1535
Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation • Corruption in the clergy • Pluralism – high church officials took over more than one church office, which led to duties being ignored • Widespread desire for meaningful religious expression • The masses wanted to insure their salvation • Church used relics and indulgences to generate money and reduce a person’s time in purgatory • “Modern Devotion” popular mystical movement • Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ • Downplayed religious dogma & stressed the teachings of Jesus
The Early Luther • Early Life • Education in law • Joins Augustinian Hermits (becomes a monk) • Struggled with assurances of salvation • Catholic Doctrine stressed faith and good work for salvation • Justification by faith & the Bible became pillars of the Protestant Reformation • The Indulgence Controversy • Jubilee indulgence (1517) • Raised money to finish St. Peter’s Basilica • “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs” • Ninety-Five Theses • Luther’s indictment of church corruption • Pope Leo X did nothing • translated into German and thousands of copies were printed
Luther Cont’d • The Quickening Rebellion • 1519: Leipzig Debate • Johann Eck forced Luther to deny the authority of popes and councils • 1520: Luther moves toward break with Rome • Wrote three pamphlets • Address to the Nobility of the German Nation • Called for German princes to overthrow the papacy in Germany • The Babylonian Captivity of the Church • Attacked the sacramental system • Called for clergy to be able to marry • On the Freedom of a Christian Man • Salvation through faith alone rather than good works
1521: Diet of Worms • 1521: Diet of Worms - Luther refuses to recant • Holy Roman Emperor Charles the V passes Edict of Worms • Excommunicates Luther • His works are burned • Luther becomes an outlaw within the Holy Roman Empire
Church and State • Doctrinal Issues • Justification by faith • Luther downplayed good works as a passage to salvation • Transubstantiation • Luther denied the practice of the bread and wine consumed turning to the blood and body of Jesus • Authority of Scripture • The word of God in the Bible was sufficient authority in religious affairs • “Priesthood of all believers” • All Christians who followed the word of God were their own priests • State Churches & New Religious Services • Luther replaced the mass with Bible readings and songs
Germany and the Reformation: Religion and Politics • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519 – 1556) • Faced four major problems • French, papacy, Turks and Germany’s internal situation • Problems allowed Luther’s movement to grow and organize • Francis I of France (1515 – 1547) • Chief concern during the reign of Charles V • Habsburg – Valois Wars (1521 – 1544) (wars between France & Spain) • Pope Clement VII (1523 – 1534) sides with Francis I • Charles V sacked Rome, took over Italy (1527) • Allowed time for the development of Lutheranism in Germany • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566) (Turks) • Killed King Louis of Hungary and moved into Vienna • Turks were pushed back in 1529 • Charles V decided to deal with Luther
Germany’s fragmented political power had made German states independent • Diet of Augsburg (1530) • Charles V demands that Lutherans return to the Catholic Church • Schmalkaldic League – alliance of German princes (8 princes & 11 imperial cities join) • New threats from the French and the Turks forced Charles to compromise with the Lutherans
Schmalkaldic War • First Phase 1546-1547 • Luther died in 1546 • Charles invades German states and defeats the Lutherans at the Battle of Muhlberg • Second Phase • German Princes allied with new French king Henry II • Although he was Catholic, he hated Charles more than the Lutherans • Charles V was forced to offer a truce • Charles abdicated (stepped down) as Holy Roman Emperor • Peace of Augsburg (1555) • Division of Christianity acknowledged • Lutheranism granted equal rights with Catholicism • German rulers could chose the religion of their subjects
The Spread of the Protestant Reformation • Lutheranism in Scandinavia • Disintegration of Denmark, Norway, Sweden union • Development of Lutheran national churches • By 1540, Scandinavia was a Lutheran stronghold • The Zwinglian Reformation • Swiss Confederation • Loose association of 13 self-governing states called cantons • Ulrich Zwingli (1484 – 1531) • Strongly influenced by Christian Humanism • Unrest in Zurich • Zwingli’s preaching vs. Catholic ideals in town hall debate • Seeks alliance with German reformers • For protection against imperial and conservative opposition • Marburg Colloquy – attempt to unite Swiss & German reformers • Stalled over interpretation of Lord’s Supper (Communion) • Zwingli believed it was symbolic • Luther believed it was literal • No alliance was formed • Swiss Civil War (Swiss Protestants vs. Catholic Cantons) • Zurich’s army defeated – Zwingli found wounded on the battlefield • Enemies cut up his body, burned pieces, and spread the ashes
The Reformation in England • Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) • Catherine of Aragón (First Wife) • Henry seeks to dissolve marriage • Charles the V was Catherine’s nephew, delayed process • Anne Boleyn (Second Wife) • Elizabeth I • Act of Supremacy (1534) • King was the head of the Church of England • Formal break with the church of Rome • Seized church land and sold it
How did the English Reformation differ from the reformation in other countries?
John Calvin and the Development of Calvinism • John Calvin (1509 – 1564) • Humanist education • Influenced by Luther • Institutes of Christian Religion (1536) • Synthesis of Protestant thought • Predestination • Some people were destined to be saved (the elect) and others were destined to be damned (the reprobate) • Calvinism: militant form of Protestantism • Two Sacraments • Baptism – sign of remission of sin • The Lord’s Supper – believed in presence of Jesus in the sacrament • Geneva • Consistory – a special body for enforcing moral discipline
The Catholic Reformation • Old and New • Emergence of new female mysticism • Regeneration of religious orders • Did good works and preached the Gospel (combating spread of Protestantism) • Creation of new religious orders • New orders founded orphanages, hospitals, schools and other acts of charity • The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) • Ignatius of Loyola (1491 – 1556) • The Spiritual Exercises – training manual for spiritual development • Jesuits recognized as a religious order (1540) • Absolute obedience to the papacy • Structured like the military • Three major objectives of Jesuits • Education crucial to combating Protestantism • Propagation of Catholic faith among non-Catholics (missionary work) • Fight Protestantism – restored Catholicism to parts of Germany, Poland and Eastern Europe
A Revived Papacy • Pope Paul III (1534 – 1549) • Reform Commission (1535 – 1537) • Blamed the church’s problems on corrupt policies of popes and cardinals • Recognized Jesuits & summoned the Council of Trent • Roman Inquisition (1542) • No compromises with Protestantism • Pope Paul IV (1555 – 1559) (Cardinal Caraffa) • 1st true pope of the Counter Reformation • Index of Forbidden Books – banned books • Any Protestant others
The Council of Trent • Met intermittently from 1545 – 1563 (3 sessions) • Divisions between moderates and conservatives (conservatives won) • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings • Scripture and Tradition • Reaffirmed as equal authorities • Only the church could interpret Scripture • Faith and Good Works were declared necessary for salvation • 7 Sacraments, transubstantiation and clerical celibacy were all upheld • Purgatory & indulgences were affirmed • (no more hawking indulgences) • Most important was the creation of theological seminaries for training priests
What were the contributions of the papacy, Council of Trent, and the Jesuits to the revival of Catholicism?